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Full text of "Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950; A Record of Sixty Years Progress"

MEIKLE ORGANISATION 



^ 



(? 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



/ 



QN the first day of June, 1892, in the early days of Southern Rhodesia, a small 
trading concern was opened in Fort Victoria. This small undertaking has, 
with the passing of time, expanded to become the wide range of modem shops now 
spread over the whole Colony. They are :- 

• MEIKLES (BULAWAYO) LIMITED, Box 61, BULAWAYO. 

• MEIKLES (BULAWAYO) LIMITED, Box 7, SHABANI. 

• MEIKLES (BULAWAYO) LIMITED, P.O. BELINGWE. 

• MEIKLES (SALISBURY) LIMITED, Box 287, SALISBURY. 

• MEIKLES (SALISBURY) LIMITED, P.O. CONCESSION. 

• MEIKLES (UMTALI) LIMITED Box 99, UMTALI. 

• MEIKLES (UMTALI) LIMITED P.O. PENHALONGA. 

• MEIKLES (UMTALI) LIMITED Box 6, CHIPINGA 

• MEIKLES (GWELO) LIMITED, Box 70, GWELO. 

• MEIKLES (VICTORIA) LIMITED, Box 121, FORT VICTORIA. 

• MEIKLES (SELUKWE) LIMITED, Box 117, SELUKWE. 

THUS has Meikles, for more than half-a-century, contributed to the development of 
Southern Rhodesia, and will in the future continue to serve the country's people 
and interests. 

Never before has the practical application of the principles of economy been so 
urgently necessary as at present. To the careful shopper economy does not mean 
cheapness — it means the low cost compatiole with complete satisfaction • - in 
other words, VALUE FOR MONEY. For fifty-eight years the name of Meikles has 
been synonymous with GOOD VALUE and SERVICE. All your requirements can be 
supplied by a Meikles Store. 




Page 52 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



NEIKLE'S HOTELS 




AAEIKLES HOTELS are iound in all the principal centres ol Southern Rhodesia, and 
are recommended by the Royal Automobile Club of South Africa and the Auto- 
mobile Association of Rhodesia. 



MEIKLES HOTEL, Box 594, SALISBURY. 
CECIL HOTEL, Box 27, UMTALI. 
ROYAL HOTEL, Box 66, UMTALI. 
HARTLEY HOTEL, Box 10, HARTLEY. 



GRAND HOTEL, Box 598, BULAWAYO. 
MIDLANDS HOTEL. Box 276, GWELO. 
HOTEL VICTORIA, Box 125, F. VICTORIA. 
GRAND HOTEL, P.O. Selukwe. 



, 



UN Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 53 



WT "if ": 



SYMBOL OF DEVELOPMENT 




LONDON 
LIVERPOOL 
MANCHESTER 
NEW YORK 
HAMBURG 
INION OF SOUTH AFRICA 
SOUTH WEST AFRICA 
SWAZILAND 
PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA 
NORTHERN RHODESIA 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA 
KYASALAND . TANGANYIKA 
KENYA . UGANDA 
ERITREA . SOMALIA 
SUDAN EGYPT 
GOLD COAST . NIGERIA 
SIERRA LEONE 
CAMEROONS 
CYRENAICA 
TRIPOLITANIA 
MAURITIUS 
GIBRALTAR 
MALTA CYPRUS 
PALESTINE 
ANTIGUA 
BAHAMAS BARBADOS 
DCMINICA . GRENADA 
JAMAICA ST. KITTS 
ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT 
1RINIDAD 
\ FR1TISH GUIANA 



Symbol of the development that has occurred since the com- 
paratively recent pioneering days of Rhodes and his collabor- 
ators, is the imposing building erected by the Bank to house its 
Bulawayo branch. 

This is one of seventeen branches at the more important 
centres in Southern and Northern Rhodesia; the Bank's network 
of over 500 branches extends to every town of importance in 
South and East Africa and to the many countries named in the 
margin. 

This unique system of branches , and the Bank ' s many affiliations . 
agents and correspondents throughout the world enable it to 
provide full banking facilities to persons in all walks of life. 

Head Office: 54 Lombard Street, London 
Head Office in South Africa: Pretoria 
Chief Agent for the Rhodeslas: Salisbury 

BARCLAYS BANK 

(DOMINION, COLONIAL 

AND OVERSEAS) 

with which is amalgamated 

THE NATIONAL BANK OF SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED 

Incorporated in tho United Kingdom 




Race 54 



Southern Rhodesia 1K0O-195 



From COMPMFS COLONY 
to NEAR-DOMINION 

Southern Rhodesia's Constitutional Advance 

By 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR GODFREY HUGGINS 

C.H., K.C M.G., F.R.C.S., M.P. 




f£ ':': 



\ %£jPgir$$!k today, after nearly twenty-six 



of self-government, she is 
s3f2Fji5fl£ rapidly approaching the status 
'■'f'iiTvfiZf-'&ri of a full Dominion with complete 



control over her own affairs. 
That is not a bad record for a country which 
was founded, colonised and developed within 
the lifetime of many of its citizens. 

The first constitutional step which led to the 
acquisition of the territory between the Limpopo 
and Zambesi rivers for 
the British Empire was 
the grant of a Royal 
Charter by Queen Vic- 
toria to the British 
South Africa Company 
on the 29th October, 
1889, conferring upon 
it large powers of ad- 
ministration to carry out 
the objects for which it 
was formed . Those 
objects, briefly, were to 
give effect to the terms 
of the Rudd Concession, 
secured by Charles 
Dunell Rudd, on behalf 
Cecil Rhodes from the 
Matabele King, Loben- 
gula, exactly a year 
before. The Concession 
granted to Rhodes the 
exclusive right to exploit 
the mineral wealth of 
Mashonaland, whose 
.tfame at that time rested 
largely on its reputed 
riches of gold and silver. 
Rhodes wanted Mash- 
onaland not merely for 
its mineral wealth. He 




strategical significance. Its gold was the lode- 
stone that attracted lesser men and the means 
by which Rhodes hoped to place the venture on 
an economic basis; his real aims were those of 
the practical visionary. 

He wasted no time once the Royal Charter 
had been granted. He made a contract with 
Frank Johnson (later Colonel Sir Frank Johnson) 
to lead a column into Mashonaland. In those 
days of inadequate communications and animal 
transport, things moved slowly, yet within a 
year Frank Johnson had recruited and organised 

a Pioneer Column con- 
sisting of a Pioneer 
Corps of 180 men and 
a column of British 
South Africa Company's 
Police of 500 men, 
appointed its leaders, 
arranged for its equip- 
ment, and despatched 
it on its journey. It 
was a journey into the 
unknown, but it ac- 
complished its mission 
successfully and peace- 
fully, and hoisted the 
Union Jack on the site 
of present-day Salisbury 
on the 13th September, 
1890, having arrived the 
previous day, which is 
the date on which we 
celebrate Occupation 

Day. 



COLONY'S EARLY 
DAYS 

HE CONSTITU- 

tion of the new 

territory, as originally 

defined in the Charter, 



T 



had a far greater purpose THE RIGHT HON. SIR GODFREY HUGGINS, was amended by a series 

— the extension of the Southern Rhodesia's Prime Minister through 17 years Q f Orders in Council in 

British Emnire in Africa °* P eace anl5 War. This photograph was taken when t L r ( , rM - c n { 

ful <.™-t?H«^ ™«f +kl the Prime Minister left by Flying Boat for the Conference **£ first few years Ot 

the acquisition of this o( Commonwealth Prime Ministers En London in the Colony's existence, 

valuable territory for its October, 1948. The Order in Council 



Southern RHonesrA 1890-1950 



Pace 55 



LUXURY IN THE 
HEART OF AFRICA 

^l^HEN you come up each day from the Falls, 
awed by the thunder of the world's greatest 
river wonder — thrilled by the splendour of the 
sunrise, the Lunar Rainbow or, perhaps, the sight of 
hippo and crocodile . . . pleasantly tired . . . then 
it is that you fully appreciate the quiet luxury of 
the Victoria Falls Hotel, its efficient service and its 
excellent cuisine. 




Book your accommodation 
through any Tourist Agency 



or The Manager, 



vjaoit 



FALL* 



HOTEL 



Victoria Falls, Southern Rhodesia 



Pac;e 56 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 







LOBENGULA, King of the Matabele, 1870-93. 



of the 18th July, 1894, following the conclusion 
of the Matabele War and the rout of Lobengula's 
impis, added Matabeleland to Mashonaland and 
Manicaland to form the present geographical 
entity of Southern Rhodesia. Another important 
Order was that of 1898 (following the Matabele 
and Mashona Rebellions), which provided for 
the administration of the territory, its legislation, 
the preservation of peace and order, the con- 
stitution of the Courts of Justice, and the 
administration of the Native population. 

Within a year of the Occupation, the settlers 
of Mashonaland found themselves with a ready- 
made set of laws, for by proclamation on the 
10th June, 1891, the laws of the Cape Colony 
in force on that date were adopted for the 
administration of the new territory as far as 
circumstances permitted. Cape Colony laws 
passed subsequently to that date did not apply. 
(The Cape was then a self-governing Colony, of 
which Rhodes was, in fact, Premier). This 
proclamation had its echo 46 years later when, 
4n November, 1937, the Southern Rhodesia 
Parliament adopted a Dill to declare "which of 
the laws in force in the Cape Colony on the 
10th June, 1891, are inapplicable to this Colony, 
and to repeal specifically such laws of the 
Colony of the Cape of Good Hope and of this 
Colony as have already been repealed otherwise 
than specifically, or have by the lapse of time or 
otherwise, become unnecessary." 



FIRST ADMINISTRATORS 

FOR THE FIRST NINE YEARS OF THE 
B.S.A. Company's regime, Southern Rho- 
desia was governed by a one-man Government — 
the Administrator. The first Administrator, who 
travelled up with the Pioneer Column, was 
Mr. A. R. Colquhoun, but he resigned the 
following year, and was succeeded by Dr. (later 
Sir) Leander Starr Jameson, popularly known as 
"Dr. Jim". Jameson, who was Rhodes's right- 
hand man and closest friend, was an ideal man 
for a job which at times was both difficult and 
delicate. He had a free and easy manner, was 
readily approachable, and interpreted the laws 
with more common sense than legal profundity, 
suiting his interpretation to the needs of the 
moment rather than the letter of the law. But 
he could act firmly, too. The only white man 
so far hanged in Southern Rhodesia was sentenced 
to death by him — for the alleged murder of a 
travelling companion on the long trek to Salisbury 
from the South. The evidence was purely 
circumstantial, and a properly constituted court 
of law would probably have given him the 




MAJOR FRANK JOHNSON. 

The contract for transport* equipment and food supplies 
of the Pioneer Force was undertaken by Major Frank 
Johnson (later Col. Sir Frank Johnson) who was placed 
in command of the Force. The column reached its 
objective, the vicinity of Mount Hampden, on September 
12th, 1890 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 51 





THE BREWERY commenced oper- 
ations in 1899, one year before the 
Railway reached Salisbury, all plant 
and materials being transported from 
Umtali by ox wagon. That the diffi- 
culty of transporting heavy machinery 
ever the roads then in existence was 
surmounted was, in itself, a triumph 
of Rhodesian enterprise. 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN BREWERIES 
LIMITED purchased the Old Brewery 
in 1910 and, after erecting a more 
modern and up-to-date plant com- 
menced brewing their famous brands 
of CASTLE BEERS. 

CASTLE BEERS are truly Empire 
Products in every sense of the 
meaning of the phrase. 

The Malt, the foundation which pro- 
vides the health and strength-giving 
property to Beer, is, as far as possible, 
made from Rhodesian-grown Barley. 

A portion of the Hops comes from 
Gecge in the Cape Province, and the 



/ 



Castle 



Page 58 




alisfaurp 



^Bretoerp 






I 



Southern Rhodesia' 1890-1950 




FIRST LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1924. 

Left to right (sitting): Sir E. Montagu; W. M. Leggate; H. U. Moffat; P. D. L. Fynn; Sir C. Coghlan; L- Cripps 
(Speaker); Sir F. Newton; R. L. Hudson; C. EickhofF: Mrs. £. Tavvsc Jollie; J. W. Downie. 
(Standing): C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk Assistant); Col. D. C. Munro; Col. C. F. Birncy; Col. O. C. du Port; A. R. Thom- 
son; G. F. Elcombe; J. Jearcy (Clerk of the House); W. J. Boggle; H. Benin; F. L. Hadfield; M. Danger; R. A. Fletcher. 
(Back row): R. D. Gilchrist; J. Martin; C. E. Gilfillan; G. M. Huggins; J. Murdoch Eaton; J- Cowden; L. K. 
Robinson; H. R. Barbour; E. Edwards (Press); Lewis (Hansard); A. Drew (Clerk ) ; H. Hawtin (Hansard). 

Inset : I. P. Richardson and F. P. Mennell. 



benefit of a considerable doubt, but Jameson 
was at that time gravely concerned by the 
growing number of incidents of this kind and 
felt he had to make an example. Rough justice, 
perhaps, but they were rough days. 

Dr. Jameson's greatest achievement during 
his Administratorship was his invasion of 
Matabeleland at the head of 700 Pioneers from 
Salisbury and Fort Victoria, and the conquest 
of Lobengula's martial might. But he fell 
temporarily from grace a bare two years later 
jsvhen he led an adventurous body of Rhodesian 
"Police" in his famous raid on the Transvaal, 
which resulted in his defeat, capture and subse- 
quent sentence to imprisonment in Britain. The 
quality of his character may be measured by his 
rehabilitation, for he later became Prime Minister 
of the Cape Colony. 

He was succeeded as Administrator of 
Rhodesia by Mr. W. H. (later Sir William) 



Milton, a Rugby International and a man of 
outstanding character, who guided the Colony's 
affairs wisely and well until 1914- It was under 
his regime, on the 15th May, 1899, that the first 
step towards democratic government was taken 
with the formation of the first Legislative 
Council. With Milton as its president, it 
consisted of the Resident Commissioner, six 
nominated members who were civil servants 
(heads of department), and two elected members 
for each of Mashonaland and Matabeleland, 
making seven official votes to four elected votes. 
They met in Cecil Building, since altered and 
improved, which is still in service as the Legisla- 
tive Assembly Building. During subsequent 
years the elected members, as a result of constant 
agitation, steadily improved their position until 
by 1920 they numbered 13 and controlled the 
Legislative Council, somewhat similar to the 
position which the Legislative Council in 
Northern Rhodesia has now reached. , ■• 



Southern RhoMSIA 1890-1950 



Pace 59 



/ 



TEUNON BROS. 



PaUUeM., 2>eco*aJo4d & g«puwate*A. 



Phone 3545 
P.O. Box 620 
BULAWAYO 



Phone 20572 

P.O. Box 281 

SALISBURY 




RHODELECT HOUSE. SALISBURY 



The Tallest Building in Central Africa 
A Fine Example of Modern Design and Construction 
PAINTING AND DECORATING THROUGHOUT BY TEUNON BROS. 



SPECIALISTS IN SIGNWRITING 
Signs • Posters • Show Cards 
Calico Signs • Tickets • Panel Vans 



SIGNS BY THE SCREEN PROCESS ALL TYPES 0F METAL SIQNS suppLIED 

Sole Manufacturers of REFLECTIVE SIGNS in Southern Rhodesia 



Page 60 



Southern Rhodesia 1890 1950 




SECOND LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1929. 

Front row, left to right: Capt. H. Bertin; H. H. Davies;; Maj. the Hon. R. J. Hudson; The Hon. J. W. Downie; 
The Hon. H. U. Moffat; The Hon. L. Cripps (Speaker); The Hon. P. D. L. Fvnn ; The Hon. W. M. Legate; The Hon. 
R. A. Fletcher; C. Eickhofl" (Deputy Speaker). 

Second row: B. Munscn (Chief Messenger); R. D. Gilchrist; D. MacGillivray; G. Mitchell; Maj. E. 1. Guest; 
J. Murdock Eaton; C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk Assistant); R. V. Gorle, V.C. (Sergeant-atArms); J. G. Jearey (Clerk of the 
House); C- S. Jobling; G. R. Milne; M. D. Chixton; J. L. Martin; Capt. R. E. Downcs ; J. Cowden, 

Back row: L H. Malcolm; A. R. Welsh; G. M. Huggins ; G. Munro; Miss K. M. Davidson (now Mrs. W. D. Gale) 
(Assistant Librarian); C:ipt. L. L. Green; M. Dan:igcr; S. M. L. O'Kccffe; L.J. W. Keller. 
Inset: Col. A. J. Taylor ; A.R.Thomson. 



RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT 

TN THE ORIGINAL CHARTER CLAUSE 33 
JL reserved to the Crown the power at the end 
of the first 25 years, and thereafter at the end 
of every succeeding 10 years, to add to, amend 
or repeal any of the provisions of the Charter. 
When the first period of 25 years ended, in 
October, 1914, the Legislative Council was 
called upon to decide whether the Charter 
should be continued, or whether the country 
should be incorporated in the Union. The 
Council wisely decided (the first world war 
having just broken out) to recommend its 
extension for a further 10 years. A Supple- 
mental Charter was issued on the 13th March, 
1915, containing a proviso that if during the 
ensuing 10 years the Legislative Council should, 
by an absolute majority, pass a resolution praying 
the Crown to grant Responsible Government, 
supporting it by evidence that such a course 
would be justified by the condition of the 
country, financially and in other respects, the 
Crown could alter the Charter to bring this about. 

In May, 1920, the Council passed the necessary 
resolution asking for the establishment of 
Responsible Government "forthwith'". In 
March, 1921, the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies appointed a Committee, of which 
Lord Buxton was chairman, to consider certain 



questions relating to Southern and Northern 
Rhodesia. The report dealing with Southern 
Rhodesia recommended that the Question of 
whether or not the territory was prepared to 
adopt responsible government should be decided 
at the earliest possible moment, and that the 
matter should be placed before the electors by 
means of a referendum rather than a general 
election. 

A delegation of elected members of the LegiS' 
la five Council travelled to London to discuss 
the terms of Responsible Government with the 
Secretary of State and returned with Draft 
Letters Patent. The Secretary of State at the 
same time stipulated that the Government of 
the Union of South Africa should be approached 
to ascertain the terms on which Southern Rho- 
desia could be admitted to the Union. The 
alternative policies should then be submitted to 
the people of the Colony in the form of a 
referendum. General Smuts went to the limit 
to make the terms of Rhodesia's admission to 
the Union as attractive as possible, but when 
the referendum was held on the 27th October, 
1922, the majority voted in favour of Responsible 
Government — 8,774 against 5,989 in favour of 
the Union. 

On the 12th September, 1923, the thirty-third 
anniversary of the Occupation of Mashonaland 
by the Pioneer Column, our country was formally 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



P A 01£ <SL 



OUR TRADE MARK 



/^5^\ YOUR GUARANTEE 

\ A / 

pflUAV/Cfc, 





QONFIDENCE is the only sound basis ior lasting 
filhk good relations between buyers and sellers, 

-40 and we claim to have established that confidence 
through our consistent adherence to the policy 
that only the combination cf expert craftsmanship and quality materials 
makes products of lasting satisfaction. 

Our Trade Mark, therefore, is your guarantee of the 
best in all types of canvas goods, from the marquee 
tent or heavy tarpaulin, to the small folding canvas 
stool or water bag. 

TENTAGE is a line which has our special attention, and we are able to 
meet the most exacting demands for all requirements. 

TARPAULINS, designed to stand up to all weather 
conditions, are produced for lorries, trucks or other 
special purposes. 

CAMPING EQUIPMENT, in all its varieties, is always 
in stock. 

AWNINGS and BLINDS, in many attractive patterns and 
colour schemes, may be made to individual specifications. 




32e 



SOUTH AFRICAN CANVAS CO. LIMITED 



DUNDEE HOUSE, GORDON AVE., 
SALISBURY, S. RHODESIA. 

Also at - ,'OHANNESBURG 



DUNDEE HOUSE. FORT STREET, 
BULAWAYO, S. RHODESIA. 



DURBAN 



CAPE TOWN 



PORT ELIZABETH 



OVERSEAS HOUSE: LOW & BONAR LTD., DUNDEE and LONDON. SPINNING WEAVING and 
WATERPROOFING WORKS AT DUNDEE (SCOTLAND). 



Page 62 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




THIRD LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1934 
BulcOT. F.D.Ttlw—1 A.R.Thomson: A.fi.W*; J. I. Mart., J. Cowd™, B. * . L Ho.ke. : C. VI . 

Lcppington. 



annexed to the British Crown with the title of 
"Colony of Southern Rhodesia", and on the 
1st October, Letters Patent were issued granting 
Responsible Government under a Constitution 
which provided for a legislature consisting of a 
Legislative Council and a Legislative Assembly 
of 30 members. The Council can be constituted 
by a law passed by the Assembly, but this power 
has not yet been exercised, and the Colony has 
known only unicameral government. If the 
present moves towards federation with Northern 
Rhodesia and Nyasaland are successful, however, 
a bicameral government will have to be intro- 
duced, and in my opinion, should he introduced 
in the near future if federation does not material- 
' ise. 



RESERVATIONS IN CONSTITUTION 

THE NEW COLONY DID NOT ENJOY 
full autonomy. Legislation regarding Native 
affairs, the Rhodesia Railways Limited, and 
certain other matters were reserved, that is, had 
to receive the sanction of the Secretary of State 
before becoming law. The United Kingdom High 
Commissioner in South Africa had supervisory 
powers in connection with Native affairs and 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



the trusteeship of Native Reserves was vested 
in him. In 1934, and again in 1935, I visited 
London to discuss with the then Secretary of 
State (the late Right Honourable J. H. Thomas), 
the removal or amendment, of certain restrictions 
and reservations in the Constitution in keeping 
with the advancing status of the Colony. The 
British Government was sympathetic, and in 
1936 the Constitution Amendment Act removed 
the supervisory powers of the High Commis- 
sioner in South Africa, established direct 
consultation between the Southern Rhodesia 
Government and Downing Street on differential 
native legislation, transferred the trusteeship of 
the Native reserves to a Board of Trustees 
consisting of a chairman, nominated by the 
Secretary of State, the Chief Justice and the Chief 
Native Commissioner, and removed a number 
of minor anomalies to give the Colony a greater 
say in its own affairs. This represented a big 
step forward towards constitutional maturity. 

Since then, the reservations regarding the 
Rhodesia Railways have fallen away (they are 
now owned by the State), and with the exception 
of differential Native legislation and foreign 
affairs, in which Britain speaks for, us, we are 
fully self-governing. The Native legislation 
reservation is not likely to fall away until we 

(continued pn page 69) 

Page t>3 




TIMES HAVE 
CHANGED ! 

Early Rhodesia Railways locomotives 
had a tractive effort of 18,660 lb. 
The march of progress has necessi- 
tated the use of larger and more 
powerful locomotives to haul the 
heavy volume of traffic offering. The 
engine shewn above — a 15th Class 
Garratt — has a tractive effort of 
42,746 lb., and is one of 34 of this 
class helping to break traffic records 
almost every month. 



SIXTY YEARS OF ACHIEVEMENT 

RHODESIA ■ RAILWAYS 



Page 64 



Southern Rhodesia 




FOURTH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1935. 

Front row, left to right : H. H. Davics; The Hon. V. A. Lewis; The Hon. P . D. L. Fynn; The Hon. J H. Smit; The 

Hon. G. M. Huggins; The Hon. A. R. Welsh (Speaker); Capt. The Hon. W. S. Senior; E. W. L. Nbakes; Cnpt. 

The Hon. F. E. Harris; Sir Hugh Williams. 

Second row: R.D.Gilchrist; C. W. Leppington ; R. T. Anderson; J. J. Conway ; D. M. Somerville; Lieut.-Col. J. B. 

Brady; C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk Assistant) ; R. V. Gorle, V.C. (Sergeant-at-Arms); J. G. Jcarcy (Clerk oi the House); 

W. A. E. Wincerton; Lieut.-Col- E. L. Guest; Maj. L. A. M. Hastings; R. C. Tredgold. 

Third row: B.S.A. Police; A. W. V. Crow lie; Maj- G. H. Walker; J. Cowden; C. W. H. Caplc (Chief Messenger 

R. A. Fletcher; F. D. Thomson; B.S.A. Police. 

Back row: L. J. W. Keller; D. Macintyrc; J. H. Malcolm; J. L. Manin. 




FIFTH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1939. 
Front row, left to right : E. W. L. Noakes; The Hon. R C Tredgold; The Hon. J. H, Smit ; The Hon. G. M- Huggins ; 
The Hon. A. R. Welsh (Speaker); The Hon. Sir P. D. L. Fynn; Capt. The Hon. F. E. Hams; Lt.-Col. The Hon. E. L. 
Guest; The Hon. H. H. Davies. 

Second row: A. E. Davis (Chief Messenger); C. W. Leppington; Capt- A. W Whictington ; H V. Wheeler; J- B. 
Lister ; C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk of the House) : Col. A. J. Tomlinson (Sergeant-at- Arms) ; G E. We s (Clerk Assistant) ; 

E. C. F. Whitehead ; M. Danziger; Col. W. H. Ralston ; L.B.Fereday; Col. J. B. Brady; G. E. Pennell (Chiet Messenger). 
Back row: D. Macintyre; J. P. dc Kock; Capt- H. Bertln ; T. A. Kimble; L. J.W.Keller; Maj. LA. M Hastings; 

F. n. Thompson; P. B Fletcher; E. P. Vernall; Capt. W. H. Eastwood; Maj. G. II. Walker; W. A, E. Winterton. 

<T. H. W. Bcndle absent on service). 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 65 



7^e 








Wilh the opening of Rhodelect House in October, 1949, a milestone 
was reached both in the history of Rhodelect Ltd. and of Salisbury 
itself In erecting this, the tallest building in Southern Rhodesia, we 
have to thank the public of this Colony for their splendid support. 
We hope to have the privilege of serving our customers with renewed 
efficiency in surroundings both pleasant and modern. 



Representing: 
REVO ELECTRIC COOKERS: EKCO RADIOS AND RADIOGRAMS; 
HIGG'S MOTORS; PRODUCTS OF WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC 
INTERNATIONAL CO.; ENFIELD CABLES AND WIRES; EASY 
WASHING MACHINES; BRIMSDOWN RUBBER PRODUCTS; JACUZZI 
PUMPS; VITRETEX PAINTS; VOLSPRAY AIR COMPRESSORS AND 

PAINT SPRAYING EQUIPMENT; GEARING'S BOREHOLES; LINDSAY 

LONG LIFE BATTERIES; AIREDALE STARTERS; THERMO COOKERS. 

AND 

GEORGE ANGUS & CO. LTD.; SAUNDEfTS VALVE CO. LTD.; 

NATIONAL CORPORATION; WOLSELEY SHEEP SHEARING CO. LTD.; 

BRITISH ALUMINIUM CO. LTD.: SPERRYN & CO; CM. ENGINEERING 

CO. LTD. 



Steetnicat 



Phone 22276 




B9B9B' Lt^'IB59£B| 

HOOllECT L TD 



ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL EN3INEERS 
RHODELECT HOUSE- BAKER AVE -SALISBURY 



P.O. Box 1324 



f 



Page 66 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




SIXTH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 1946. 

Front row, left to right : The Hon. T. H. W. Beadle; The Hon. G. H. Davenport; Th« Hon. P. B. Fletcher; Col. The 
Hon. SirE. L. Guest; The Hon. Sir G. M. Hugging; Sir A. R. Welsh; E. W. L. Noakes; The Hon. 1. H. Smitr The 

Hon. H. H. Davies; D. Macintyre; The Hon. L. J. W. Keller. 

Second row: J. H. Hampton (Chief Messenger) ; B.S.A. Police; D. C. Paul; L. M. Cullinanj T. T. Haworch (Parlia- 
mentary Librarian); J. R. Frank (Clerk Assistant); C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk of" the House); E. Grant-Dalton (Sergeant-at- 
Aims); G. E. Wells (Clerk Assistant);! L. J. Howe-Ely (Committee Clerk); P. A. Wise; B.S.A. Police; E. Thurtcll 
(Assistant Messenger). 

Third row: J. A. Ewing; T. J. Golding; G. B. P. Tuniner; C. A. Bott; G. Mimro; D, W. Young; R. S. G. Todd; 
T. I. F. Wilson; L. M. N. Hodson; W. H. Elliott; J. L. Smit; J. S. McNeillie. 

Back row: J. B. Lister; R. Williamson: A. W, Dunn; R. O. Stockil; A. R. W. Stumbles. 









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SEVENTH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 194S. 

FpSnt row, left to right: R. O. Stockil; The Hon. E. C. F. Whitehead; The Hon. P. B. Fletcher: The Rr. Hon. Sir 
Godfrev Huggins; The Hon. Sir Allan Welsh (Speaker); T. I. F. Wilson; The Hon. T. H. W. Beadle; The Hon. R. F. 
Halsted; L. J. V. Keller. 

Second row: H. Hampton (Chief Messenger); L. M. Cullinan; G. K. Hackwill; J. R, Uendv Young; T. Titley Haworth 
(Librarian); C. C. D. Ferris (Clerk of the House); E. Grant-Dalton (Sergeant -at-Arms); Lt.-Col. G. E. Wells (Clerk- 
Assistant); L- J- Howe-Ely (Committee Clerk); R St. Quintin; R. A. Ballantyne; J. M. Caldkott; L. Ruile (Assistant 
Messenger). 

Third row: N. G. Barrett; The Hon. Humphrey Gibbs; L.J. Smit; H.A.Holmes; G. Munro; D. Macintyre; W. A. 

E. Winterton; L. M. N. Hodson; The late A. M. F. Stuart; P. A. Wise. 

Back row: I. D. Smith; R. S. G. Todd; B. A. Barker; J. M. Greenfield; D. W. Lardner-Burke. 
Insets: The Hon. G. A. Davenport; W. H. Eastwood (elected in place of the late A. M. F. Stuart). 



Soi-thern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 67 



^.aONEEHB, : COACHBUILDERS : WELOHRS : «r„^ : KELMAK (ENGINEERS) : C OACHBU,LD ER S , m 



— 



2 



KEIMAK (Engineers) 

Of 

I SALISBURY 

% COACHBUILDERS . WELDERS . SPRAY PAINTERS 

w Makers oi 

B BODIES TOM BUSES, TRUCKS, TOILERS, VANETTES. TRAILER CHASSIS 1 

d FROM 15 CWT. TO 5 TONS CAPACITY. CANOPIES FOR VANETTES 5 
X OF ALL TYPES 

S 

S KELMAH (ENGINEERS,. « SAUSBUBY STREET. SALISBURY. S. RHODESIA. | 

£ Partners - - . i it UJWUHHV -_.. r, ,. ,. " 



z 

3 



I. H. MACAULAY and D. F. FULLARTON. 



» t :L M A KMRS , : COACHBUILOBRS : WELOERS : SPRAY PAI , rERS . KELMAK „,, ; COACHBUILDERS ; « 




/ 



HYLTON & CO., LIMITED 

AIBANr HOUSE - 89 MAIN STREET - BULAWAYO - S R 

P.O. Box 607 - Phono SUB 

FOR ALL LETTERING PURPOSES ' 



Pace 68 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 





LEGISLATIVE 

The construction of Cecil Rtnldinp 



ASSEMBLY, SALISBURY, SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 

'as commenced in 1896, with the intention of using it as an hotel. 




Parliament in 1924, was held in Prince's Hall, Salisbury, but since then, Cecil Building, with alterations and im- 
provements, has been the home of Southern Rhodesia's Legislative Assembly. 



(continued from page 63) 

have a Second Chamber. I am not particularly 
anxious, at this stage of our development, to see 
the Colony shoulder responsibility for the 
conduct of its relations with foreign powers. 
The establishment of embassies 
and consulates in different parts 
of the world would he costly in 
both money and manpower and 
would probably be beyond us, 
at least until our resources have 
been more fully developed than 
they are now. 



9LOSER ASSOCIATION 
WITH NORTH 

'"THROUGH THE YEARS, 
■*■ close and cordial relations 
have existed between the two 
Rhodesias, and in later years also 
with Nyasaland. During its 
regime, the British South Africa 
Company sought to bring about 



the amalgamation of the two Rhodesias to 
secure a measure of administrative economy 
(before 1923 it was responsible for the admin- 
istration of the two territories separately), but 
the elected members of the Legislative Council 

(continued on page 73) 




A division in progress during the first session of the Seventh Parliament. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page $) 




n 



<_* 



n 



o 



FOR ALL OCCASIONS 



*>£><$<> 




/ 



GOLDSMITHS • SILVERSMITHS 

FIRST STREET 
SALISBURY 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA 




SOUTHERN 
RHODESIA 

Land of Opportunity ! 

AGRICULTURE 

INDUSTRY 

MINING 

Sunshine and Scenery 
for ihe Tourist. 

Eager as the Colony is to welcome 

skilled British immigrants of good 

health and character, there 

:s a serious housing 

shortage. 



When normal conditions 

return, the country will 

offer you 

UNRIVALLED 
OPPORTUNITY 




Pace 70 



For further particulars apply to 
The Dtreaor, Public Nrttw Department, P.O. Box 52, Causeway 
Tu u- i. r. Salisbury, or to 

The H,ah Commissioner for Southern Rhodesia.. Rhodes.a House t 
423 Strand, London, W.C.2. I 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



[ 




^<^^^ A*e, which was 

fa f ^Tl^^^ ft "«J. Margaret, spent 

a reigning monarch had visited a Colony) was in the nature nfT MM?,' I 2&,?° th ' S Colony (the first time 
m the Union, and official engagements were kept to a SuJS^lS ILwfftV **«?*«■ P-gramme 
atjfie Victoria Falls where Their Majesties were able w rela X rI iL % ,^u ° f t L hci ?, visit was their «»Y 
Gatooma, Que Que and Gwelo and spent three dTvs a BulawavA if„f eS f^ury the Royal Family visited 
thetr way to Cape Town to rejoin the b«*S5, h!m?S Vanguard ° """"^ throu * h Bechuanaland on 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



■ 



Pace 71 




J?-As€{7/?//<?6/, 'foaAdtjfe>&£e€%, in Clarks 'Joyance' 
Sandals. Unexcelled for quality and fitting perfection. Clarks children's sandal.s arc known 
and demanded by name in all parts of the world. 



C. & J. Clark Ltd. (Wholesale only), Slrcel, 
Somerset. England. Agents:- Agencies (Africa) 
Ltd., P.O. Box 557. 34 Cordon Avenue, 
Salisbury, S. Rhodesia. 



CHILDREN'S SHOES AND SANDALS 



MADE IX ENCT.*\n 




/ 




Page 72 



Southern- Rhodesia 1890-1950 



(continued from page 69) 

opposed the proposal, and it was dropped. In 
the 1930's, the Southern Rhodesia Parliament 
passed a number of resolutions urging amalgama- 
tion, and in 1938, the Bledisloe Commission was 
appointed to enquire into its feasibility. It 
found certain objections to the immediate 
introduction of amalgamation, but recom- 
mended its adoption at some future time. The 
outbreak of the last war prevented the matter 
being pursued further. In 1944, when I was in 
London, I asked the Secretary of State how he 
proposed to implement the closer association of 
Southern Rhode- 
sia, Northern Rho- 
desia and Nyasa- 
land, and received, 
in answer, the sug- 
gestion that a Cen- 
tral African Coun- 
cil should be set 
up. This suggestion 
was discussed by 
our Government, 
who decided to 
accept it in order 
to ensure that the 
proposal for amal- 
gamation should 
be kept alive, 
although it was 
appreciated that 
the Council was 
a mere sop. The 
Council is purely 
consultative and 
advisory, and has 
no executive func- 
tions. Its proposals 
are subject to the 
sanction of the indi- 
vidual Parliaments, 
which is a cumber- 
some procedure. 
But at least, the 
Council has proved 
the* value of inter- 
State co-operation 
and the tremen- 
dous benefits that 
would derive from 
still closer asso- 
ciation under one 
Government. In 
recent years, it has 



become evident that any proposal for outright 
amalgamation would meet with serious opposi- 
tion, and now we are considering the possibilities 
of closer working under a federal form of 
government. 



E 




THE SERGEANT-AT-ARMS, MR. E. GRANT-D ALTON . 

CARRYING THE MACE. 
The design of the Mace follows tliat of the House of Commons, 
and is officially described by the makers as follows : — 

"a chased silver-gilt Mace, the head surmounted by a 

Roval Crown, enclosing date 1924, and divided by caryatides 

supporting arches into four panels containing the Royal 

Arms, the Arms of Rhodesia, and cyphers of G.R.V., the 

end of the staff terminated by four figures, and the rod 

divided by two bulb fluted knobs and wreathed with the 

national emblems of the Rose, Thistle, and Acorn ; having a 

terminal trumpet-shaped knop enriched with chased acanthus 

leaves, and roses and thistles in the panelling". 

The Mace, together with the Speaker's Ceremonial Robe, 

and the dress of the Clerks and the Chief Messenger, are a 

perpetual reminder that the Parliament of Rhodesia is a child 

of the Parliament of Great Britain, and that it shares with that 

noble institution, its traditions and its liberties, which the 

people of Great Britain have built up through the centuries, not 

for themselves only, but also for the citizens of the whole 

Commonwealth. 



CONSTITUTIONAL ADVANCEMENT 

YEN IF FULL DOMINION STATUS 
has not yet been formally conferred, 
Southern Rhodesia in some respects ranks as a 

fully self-governing 
country in the 
councils of the 
world. In econo- 
mic affairs, her re- 
presentatives sit 
side by side with 
those of the great 
Powers, and at 
Commonwealth 
Conferences her 
Ministers rank with 
those of the Do- 
minions. Recogni- 
tion of her growing 
constitutional im- 
portance was given 
in the passing in 
June, 1949, of the 
S. Rhodesia Citi- 
zenship Act, where- 
by the Colony has 
the same right to 
confer citizenship 
as the completely 
autonomous mem- 
bers of the Com- 
monwealth. Her 
constitutional ad- 
vancement has been 
rapid, a far cry 
from the terms of 
the Royal Charter 
of 1889 and of the 
Letters Patent of 
1923, and a tribute 
to the character 
and quality of the 
people who have 
helped build this 
country over the 
last sixty years. 



Southern- Rhodesia 1890 1950 



Page 7.3 




HAULAGE 



IN 1903 



GEORGE ELCOMBE commenced Haulage Work 
lor the commercial community of Salisbury with 
two mules and one small trolley .... 



TO-DAY 



GEORGE ELCOMBE LTD. use a fleet oi modem 
vehicles — the Foden Diesel illustrated above is 
the latest addition to our fleet — coupled with 
nearly 50 years experience IN RHODESIA 



ELCOMBE'S 
for 
' HAULAGE 



GEORGE ELCOMBE LTD. 
SALISBURY 



P.O. Box 166 
Pace 74 



Phone 22366 



2ucdttu tf-o-otw-ea/i 



Ijotmcf, Man a^ flkadedta 



^J towtufoocC 




I Jfowiwood, 





Lae/uf, Pai/i Quantmteed 



"Put Ifousidetlf m (Mi Hh&ed-' 



W. M. CUTHBERT 5, CO., LIMITED 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA 

Branches at : 
BULAV/AYO, SALISBURY, GWELO, 
QUE QUE, GATOOMA, UMTALi I 

Southern Rhodisia 1 8 90— 1950 



"Even today . . . there is 
still work for Pioneers!" 



By 
T. W. RUDLAND, o.b.e. 




Thomas Wilburn Rudland, O.B.E. and a Freeman of the City of Salisbury, is one of the two remaining men now living in 
Southern Rhodesia who was present when the Flag was hoisted at Fort Salisbury on September 13, 1890, a day after the arrival 
of the Pioneer Column. At the age of IS Mr. Rudland was working on the gold mines of Spanish Honduras; 55 years after he 
entered the Colony he was contracting on improvements on the main Bulawayo-Mafeking line. Between those dates he went 
gold prospecting, built roads and railways, grew coffee in Kenya, and throughout his lifetime has maintained his great regard for 

Cecil Rhodes, whom he m^t first in 1890. 



/ 



' : r<£^WI&* HE E VENTS OF MY GENERATION 
y«rVvW"--$' , !J = in tne opening of South Central. Africa 



phenomen. 



il in the world's 



history. It was only as far back as 

" .anley 
a — a 



^''X^^/^f-r- January, 1887, that ' H. M. Stanle 
nSMfi^Vlfr starteu ouC to search for Emin Pasha— 
k/^K^BkfisSr/a journey subsequently described in his 
®-Sl52*a|t£*» book, "In Darkest Africa". Aged 20 at 
the time, I was thrilled by Stanley's 
adventure, and 1 wrote to a certain Travel Advisory- 
Agency, to ask which would be the shortest and quickest 
way to overtake Stanley. There was an amusing rebuff. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



The agency's reply was: "If your little eifusion is not 

intended as a joke, the only advice we can give you is to 

get on the back of a hippopotamus and go up the Congo I" 

Only 63 years ago — and that was probably till they knew 

about Africa! 

Let me turn to Rhodesia. In March, 1890, when the 
railhead was at Kimberlcy, 26 of us left there with 13 
wagons. The main Pioneer Column formed at Macloutsie 
and set out to occupy what is now Southern Rhodesia. 
It was to be six months before we reached Fort Salisbury. 

Our pay was 2s. 6d. a day to the Bamangwato country, 
then 7s. 6d. a day until the Pioneer Corps disbanded on 



Pa oh t "> 




RHODESIAN COLLEGE OF MUSIC 

22 LUCK STREET. SALISBURY. S. RHODESIA 



Overseas Patrons : 

Dr. Ft. 



.. S. THATCHES, O.B.E., M.C., D.Mus.'Oxor, ), 
Principal of the Royal Academy ol Music. London. 

Sir GEORGS DYSON. M.A., D.Mus.fOxon > LLD 
F.R.C.M., Hon. H.AM.. 



Board 



Professor ERIC GRANT. F.R.A.M., late Director of the 

South Af-ican Collego of Music. 



of Advisers and Trustees : 

T. S. CHEGWIDDEN. Esq., C.B., C.V.O. 
I. F. DUGUID, Esq. 
8. W. S. O'CONNELL, Esq., A.C.A. 
Founder and Director of Studies : 

EILEEN REYNOLDS. A.R.A.M., Hemter of 
porated Society of Musicians. 
Deputy Director ol Studies: 

SYLVIA REYNOLDS. A.R.C.M. 



the Incor- 



StnH : 



Secretary 



CAROL [LION, F.T.C.L 

MARGARET MOrlRISBY, A.R.C.M. 

SHtlLA fOX, L.R.A.M. 

UNA COLEMAN, L.R.A.M., A.R.C M 

ELAINE HODGSON, G.R.S.M. LRAM 

STELLA ALHADEFF, L.U.C.T. 

I. HARLEY BRIMS, Esq. 

RACHEL KING. B.So. (Psychology) 

BARBARA TATTERSALL, A.R.G.M., A.R.C.O. 
Miss D. B. WARD. 



Assistant Secretary : 

D. J. LATHAM. Esq. 



Trie Rhodewan College ol Music offers complete training 
In musicianship to students ol all ages, whether they intend 
to adopt music as a profession or not. Siudents may tako 
a complete course of study, or tuition in single subjects. 

Students are prepared for the music examinations of 
the University of South Africa, and arrangements have been 
made w,th the Associated Board cf the Royal Schools of 
Music. London, for the music examinations of the London 
Associated Board and the LR.S.M. Diplomc. 

In addition, the College offer 3 courses of study in solo 
instruments _ Pianoforte, Singing, Violoncello, Violin, 
Theory Harmony, Counterpoint, Woodwind, Brass Double 
Bass, Drama, Aural Training, Sight Singing, Musical Appre- 
naho/ and History ol Music, Choral Classes, String 
Orchestra and Ensemble. 

A Library has been established which contains books 
ot reference lor students. 

LimitlT^r^o,! 1 ? 6 bee " ' OUnded b * Messrs R adio 
Limited and the Rhodesian College of Music. 

The following are among ,he artistes who have visited 

G'Lon ITT ?J 30,enS ' SuZanne Roche ' Beatrice 

Gibson, Lib Kraus and Dr. Fielder.. 

Pa en 76 




We Must be Prepared! 

We are prepared to give you the benefit of y=ar s of 
experience in advising customers on the choice and use 
of their apparatus. We are prepared to give you the 
squarest deal you have ever mel. We are prepared to 
allow you the REAL WORTH on your present outfit 



New KODAKS for 
Better Snapshots 

Six/20 Kodak BROWNIE Model C 

Six/20 Kodak BROWNIE Model D 

Baby BROWNIE 

Brownie REFLEX 

Six/20 Kodak FOLDING BROWNIE 

Six/20 Kodak FOLDING BROWNIE, f/6.3 
lens 

Six/20 KODAK Model A. with f/6.3 lens 
and Dakon 4-speed shutter 

Six/20 KODAK Model A, with f/4.5 lens 
and Dakon 4-speed shutter 



£1/17/6 

£2/6/6 

21/0 

60/0 

£5/19/6 

£7/2/6 

£10/5/0 

£16/17/6 




PHOTOGRAPHIC SPECIALISTS 
BERKELEY BUILDINGS, FIRST STREET. SALISBURY SR 
P.O. Box 938 SALISBURY Telephone 2lg28 

"Everything Photographic Only Protographic"? 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



September 30, 1890. We had to find a road and then 
make it. Out pace was that of the ox. When we founded 
Fott Salisbury we were 1,000 miles from the railhead in 
the South; on the East Coast, the Portuguese were none 
too friendly; in the West, the truculent Matabele impis 
were wanting to '"eat us up"; to the North lay Stanley's 
"Darkest Africa". That was only 60 years ago, but the 
picture of gloom has changed to one of brightness, with 
Southern Rhodesia's social and economic development 
one of the modem wonders of the world. 



EARLY COMMUNICATIONS 
J WANT TO TALK ABOUT ROADS AND 
railways, for on these I have spent most of my working 
life. 

The Pioneer Column cut and made the road through 
virgin country from Tuli to Fort Salisbury, and this road 
carried all the transport entering the country from the 



time of the Occupation to the outbreak of the Matabele 
war — a period of three years. There was no access through 
Matabeleland, except by the grace of Lobengula, who might 
or might not "give the road" to an odd trader or hunter, 
and sometimes to important people entering the country 
on national affaits. 

Major Frank Johnson and Dr. Starr Jameson made their 
epic journey to find a shorter and quicker route to Mashona- 
land via Beira, and Mr. Cecil Rhodes quickly decided to 
build a railway from Beira — for goods transported from 
Cape Town to Salisbury were costing £50 a ton. 

Construction of the railway started from the Pungwe 
at Fontcsvilla and the first sod was turned at the end of 
1 892 ; from those beginnings grew the Rhodesia Railways 
as we know them to-day. Cecil Rhodes suggested that I 
should take part in the building of the railway, and I 
joined the staff of George Pauling in Cape Town, acting as 
Mr. A. L. Lawley's Chief Construction Engineer for nine 
months. 



Cullen Gouldsbury did for Southern Rhodesia 
what Robert W. Service did for Canada and the 
Far North. In 1912, in "Rhodesian Rhymes", 
appeared the following "Ballad of the B.M.R." — 
apt comment on the story which Mr. T. W. 
Rudland has to tell. 

Down in the land where the heathens are, 

Down in the swamps where white men stew, 
Amid the woods that stretch afar, 

Amid the creepers rank with dew, 
The Line ran out — perchance, askew, 

And drunkenly designed — but, ah ! 
In days gone by was work to do 

Upon the lonely B.M.R. ! 
The Gates of Death were held ajar — 

The pegs that marked the mileage too 
Have stood for tombstones — near and far 

Ghosts of a grimy shrivelled crew. 
The sun looked down from out the blue— 

Out of the night looked down the star, 
And marked where men had drifted through 

The death-trap of the B.M.R. 

Each bolt, each nut, each metal bar, 

Could tell a story — grim but true — 
And where the gangers' houses are 

Maybe are ghosts of dead men too — 
Ghosts of men who worked and knew 
The fever swamp, the sickening jar 
That came when life was rusted through 
Upon the Lonely B.M.R. 
L'Envoi 
Lo! — we may scoff — we often do — 
And jest at engine, truck and car — 
But— must we then forget the few 
Who made for us the B.M.R. 



■■ 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 77 



WILSON & SMITH 

Plumbers, Sanitary Engineers and Sheetmetal Worker 



Among the oldest established Plumbers and Sheetmetal 

Workers in the Colony. Our reputation for first-class 

workmanship and service is second to none. 



Workshops and Offices : 

91 SINOIA STREET 

SALISBURY 



Telephone 22765 
P.O. Box 467 



SK 



MS FURNISHERS 



'£* 



OF! 



LIMITED 



64a Abercorn Street, Bulawayo 
P.O. Box 1058 Phone 4742 

We offer you the best values in furniture, 
whether it is Imbuia, Kiaat, Oak or Mahogany. 

Always in stock Bedroom Suites, 

, Chesterfield Suites, Dining-room Suites, 

Odd Beds, Dressing Tables, Bedside 
Tables, Liquor Cabinets, Bureaux in 
Imbuia or Kiaat ..... also Lino 
Squares, Carpets and Rugs. 

YOU ARE AHEAD OF THE TIMES, WHEN YOU FURNISH AT THE TIMES 



Page 78 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




MRS. T. W. RUDLAND. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rudland celebrated 

their Golden Jubilee in February this 

year. 



BIRTH-PANGS OF A RAILWAY 

ryHE FIRST WET SEASON BROUGHT ALL ITS 
-*- evils. There were washaways, supplies were short, 
the Pungwe flooded hundreds of square miles of the flats, 
and the workers suffered appalling bouts of fever. Labour 
shortages, derailments, and fever — always the fever — con- 
tinued to dog us. At the end of the first eight months 
there were only four of us left of the original staff. Some 
had given up the job, most had died. 

When the line reached Chimeric*, P. St. George Mansergh, 
the surveyor, reported that to carry the railway front 
Macequece to Old Umtali was neither feasible nor eco- 
nomic. With characteristic decision, Mr. Rhodes said; 
"Move the township to the railway." And there it is to 
this day. 

In April, 1898, the first section to Umtali was com- 
pleted. We celebrated with a "Railway Banquet" — and 
compared the spread with our former rice rations. When 
we drank the toast to the 400 men who had laid down their 
lives, we thought of the labourers from India who had 
died almost to a man; we knew that no other railway in 
the world had had such a high mortality rate. But we 
had' built the longest narrow-gauge railway in the world! 



COLOURFUL CHARACTERS 

tF OUR CONDITIONS WERE EXTRAORDINARY, 
*■ so were some of those first "characters." Hardships 
did not deter them. Miss Rhodes and Miss Balfour 
were among the early visitors. Pat Campbell, husband 
of Mrs. Patrick Campbell, the famous actress, worked 
for rne for a time. In Beira, the heir ro an earLdom ran a 



butchery of sorts. "Long" Paley, who claimed to be a 
grandson of Bishop Paley, went up the Bust collecting 
Portuguese taxes— without any authority from the Portu- 
guese; he was to die in Beira. I found Dr. Schultz, of 
Durban, and Hupfer at Sofala, scratching about at low 
tide in search of ancient ruins. "Bloody Bill" Upsher, the 
hunter, and "Daisy" Newbolt, a nephew of Canon Newboh 
of St, Pauls, were among our "types". Respected and 
loved by everybody was Carheart, who had contracted 
for offloading railway materials from the lighters at Fontes- 
vilUa, in the mud and heat on the Pungwe. His son is 
W. D'Arcy Cathcart, now an architect in Salisbury. 

Famous among the people who walked the old East 
Const road were Bishop Knight-Bruce 's three nursing 
sisters, Blennerhasset, Sleeman and Wclby. On July 14, 
1891, they arrived at Old Umtali, having walked all the 
way from the Pungwe, mostly along bush paths. It was a 
bold and hazardous undertaking, especially for women. 
They did the journey in 14 days, and arrived at their 
destination with little more than the ragged clothes they 
were wearing. I went to England with Sisters Blennerhasset 
and Sleeman in 1893. They were the first nursing sisters 
to arrive in Mashonaland, and a memorial to them has 
very rightly been erected in Umtali. 



ADVANCEMENT 
■pEFORE I CLOSE 1 WANT TO POINT TO THE 
JJ phenomenal progress of Rhodesia in the striking 
comparison between the capital value o( the country now 
and as it was 60 years ago— as far as one can be guided 
by monetary values in a rough and ready, but generally 
lair safe, way. 

In 1889 Cecil Rhodes and his associates obtained a 
Royal Charter from Queen Victoria for the British South 
Africa Company, the initial capital being £1,000,000. 
However optimistic they were, the shares were not looked 
upon as gilt-edged. In 1948 the national income of 
Southern Rhodesia was probably £60,000,000, and at our 
present rate of progress that figure can be expected to rise 
to beyond £70,000,000 by the end of this year. Assuming 
the 1948 figure to be capitalised at an interest rate of 
5 per cent per annum, the total capital wealth of Southern 
Rhodesia at 20 years' purchase would be £1,400,000,000— a 
colossal increase from the £1,000,000 which Cecil Rhodes 
found 1 By the end of this year the capital value of" the 
Colony may be expected to reach £1,500,000,000. Add 
the national income of Northern Rhodesia capitalised 
(which seems fu lly justified, as it has certainly grown from 
that first £1,000,000 of the B.S.A. Company), and we find 
ourselves among brain-staggering series of noughts! In 
addition there are vast natural resources the value of 
which cannot be estimated until they have been proved 
and come into production. 

I have given only a brief picture of those early days in 
Southern Rhodesia, but hope that I have shown something 
of the spirit which prevailed. Wc who were living then 
and are now growing old have experienced almost un- 
believable changes— so much so, that we are apt to be 
impatient with grumblers. But the British have always 
grumbled! We, too, grumbled in those days. Perhaps it is 
better to grumble than to be smug, provided you are willing 
to lend a hand and to get things done. Even to-day there 
is still work for Pioneers! 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 79 



/ 




1890-1950 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA is Sixty Years Old this year. 
They have been Sixty Eventful Years — Years 
of Struggle, Years of Adversity, Years of Progress. 

The Foundations have been Well and Truly Laid 
for Even Greater Progress in the Immediate Future 
and in the Years Ahead. 

The Post-War Difficulties — Shortages of Essential 
Materials, Shortage of Railway Rolling Stock, Short- 
age of Housing and Other Accommodation — are 
now being overcome. 

The Stage is Set for a great Surge Forward, to 
Develop the Limitless Potentialities of our Country's 
Wealth in Base Minerals — Coal, Chrome, Asbestos, 
Mica — and in Intelligent Agriculture. 



t 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 80 



Great and far-sighted schemes are now beyond 
the Blueprint Stage — the Kariba Dam Hydro-Electric 
Project which will harness the waters of the Mighty 
Zambesi and produce Unlimited Power for the Two 
Rhodesias — the Sabi Basin Development Scheme 
which will turn this arid region into the Granary of 
Central Africa. 

These Schemes will take Years to bring to 
Fruition. In the meantime We — All of Us — can 
Help Our Country Forward by Putting Our Backs into 
Our Jobs, Proving Our Faith in the Present and the 
Future by Investing Our Money in Government Bonds 
to help Finance our General Development, and by 
Pulling Together. 

"We Are All Of One Company." 



In Three Years' 
Celebrate t h e 
Birth of Our 
Rhodes. Let Us 
Worthy of Him 
Our Faith in and 




Time we shall 
Centenary of the 
Founder, Cecil 
Prove Ourselves 
by Demonstrating 
Love for ... . 



SOUTHERN 
RHODESIA 



. .1 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 81 




The 

Grand 
Hotel 

SALISBURY 
S. RHODESIA 



MANAGER : 
W. R. REID 



THE GRAND HOTEL, originally known as "The Commercial," accommodating approximately twenty 
people, began over forty years ago. The present Grand Hotel has stood for 30 years, and has ex- 
panded throughout that time. The accommodation is now 110 rooms, Grill Room, Banqueting Hall, 
Dining Hall (seating 200 people), and 28 Lock-up Garages. 

S A L I S B U R Y'S 



MOST 



POPULAR 



MEETING PLACE 



/ 



%o* 



01 






*» 



«P 



iA»* 



t* 



& 



&Z 



tf> 






*& 






tO»iV 



G5&* 



^O^" ,v '^ 






Pace 82 



/ 
Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




16th Class Locomotive, No. 221, near Salisbur 



THE RAILWAYS OF RHODESIA: 

1890-1950 



/ 



By SIR ARTHUR GRIFFIN, k.c.i.e., o.b.e. 




giving them wide 



KE PIONEER RAILWAYS IN OTHER 
young countries, tlie Rhodesia Railways 
have grown up with the territories thev 
serve. 

It was on 29th October, 1889, that 
the Rudd Concession of October 5, 
1888, was ratified by the British Govern- 
ment when a Charter was granted to 
the British South Africa Company, 
powers and an almost unlimited field 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



or action over a huge urea or territory which was not 
defined until 1905. 

Since railway communications were vital to the success 
of Rhodes S plan for the opening up of his "hinterland", 
he made a railway agreement with the Cape Government 
in January, 1890, by which the Cape agreed to build a 
railway from Kimberley through Southern Bechuanaland, 
and thence the Chartered Company were to continue and 
complete it. In June, 1890, whilst away from Parliament, 
news reached Rhodes that the Government proposed 



Pace 83 



Established UHI 



J. S. HOLLAND 

Member of the S.R. Institute of Auctioneers, 

Estate Agents and Valuers 

SWORN APPRAISER 

UMTALI 



P.O. Box 12 



Phone 267 



AUCTIONEEH AND LIVESTOCK SALESMAN. EASTERN DISTRICT 

LAND AND ESTATE AGENT. OFFICIAL SELLER RHODESIAN SWEEP 

STAKE TICKETS. 



* 



Representing: 
Vacuum Oil Co. of S.A. Ltd.; African Explosives & Chemical Industries 
Ltd.: Alliance Assurance Co Ltd.: Ellerraan 4 Bucknall S.S. Co. Ltd. 



T. & I. CASH STORES 

The Store of Service 
ami 

Satisfaction 



LET US QUOTE YOU 
FOR ALL YOUR NEEDS 

IN THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENTS: 

GENERAL DRAPERY 

GENTS' OUTFITTING 

GROCERIES, CONFECTIONERY 

STATIONERY 

HARDWARE, BUILDING MATERIALS 



ABOUT 50 YEARS AGO THIS 
ESTABLISHMENT WAS KNOWN AS 
FINLAY & CO., WHICH ORIGIN- 
ALLY STARTED IN TWO GRASS 
HUTS; AFTER WHICH STEEL 
FRAMEWORK AND CORRUGATED 
IRON WAS IMPORTED FROM 
ENGLAND. IN 1921 IT WAS 
KNOWN AS TAYLOR & NESBIT, 
A NAME WELL KNOWN IN THE 
EASTERN DISTRICTS. SINCE 

1943 IT HAS BEEM KNOWN AS 
T5N CASH STORES 



Page 81 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



abandoning the Kimberlcy line. He 
rushed back to Cape Town and 
made a spirited defence of his rail- 
way project, the result being that 
the Cabinet resigned- On July 17, 
1890, Rhodes (who hud recently 
attained his 37th birthday) became 
Prime Minister of the Cape Colony 
in succession to Sir Gordon Sprigg, 

It says much for his personality 
that he accomplished so much in 
so short a space of time. Rhodes 
had been in Parliament for ten 
vears when he became Premier, and 
already his political contemporaries 
were describing him as "a coming 
young man." Mark Twain went 
further. He said of him that "when 
he stood upon the Cape Peninsula, 
his shadow fell on the Zambesi." 

At this late date it is interesting 
to speculate what might have hap- 
pened if Rhodes had not defeated 
the Cape Government. The history 
of Rhodesia might have been very 
different. As it happened, by the 
time the Union Jack was raised over 
Fort Salisbury on September 13, 
1890, the first 127 miles of railway 
line from Kimberley to Vryburg 
were nearing completion. 




Sir Arthur Griffin, 
General Manager, 



* A * * 

THE LINE FROM THE SOUTH 

TJIVE MONTHS AFTER HE ASSUMED OFFICE 
F as Premier, Rhodes made a speech at Vryburg on 
the occasion of the opening of the line from Kimberlcy 
to Vryburg. Four years later (October 3, 1894) Vryburg 
and Mafeking (96 miles) were linked by rail. 

There was great jubilation as the line proceeded 



steadily north. Rhodes prophesied 
that Bulawayo would become the 
Chicago of South Africa, and that 
the population of Rhodesia would 
exceed that of the Transvaal. 

Ill-health prevented him from 
attending the opening ceremony on 
November 4, 1897, but it gave him 
great satisfaction to know that 
George Pauling had not let him 
down, for in an earlier speech, he 
had said, "By 1897 Mr. Pauling 
has promised to bring you the rail- 
way from the south to Bulawayo 
and they are pushing on the railway 
from Beira as hard as they can." 

The success of his railway pro- 
gramme inspired Rhodes to greater 
endeavours. In April, 1900, he 
endorsed a map of South and 
Central Africa with these words: 
"My map, my plan. C.J.R." The 
map, which may be seen in the 
Bulawayo Museum, has marked on 
it in indelible pencil and red crayon 
rail projects which had captured his 
imagination. One such was a line 
westward from a point south of 
Palapye to the Kunene River mouth. 
On April 8, 1902, the funeral train 
conveying the body of Rhodes 
arrived at Bulawayo. It had left 
.... few davs earlier (Rhodes died on 
March 26) and was preceded by a pilot train as far as 
Mafeking, but from Mafeking an armoured train escorted 
the funeral train, and searchlights were in operation 
during the night, for the Boer War did not end until 
May 31, 1902. 

An interesting outcome of the construction of the 
line between the Bechuanaland border and Bulawayo was 
the founding of Plumtree School. When Metcalfe, the 
first engineer of the Rhodesia Railways, travelled between 



K.C.T.E., O.B.E., 
Rhodesia Railways 



Cape Town some 




15th Class Engine No. 380 at Umtali, with "Jack Tar", an early Rhodesia Railways engine. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pare 85 







ervice 



"OF SERVICE" ACCORDING TO WEBSTERS, MEANS 

HELPFUL OR USEFUL AND THAT IMMEDIATELY 

BRINGS TO THE MINDS OF MOST RHODESIANS THE 
WELL-KNOWN NAME OF HADDON & SLY — THE FAMILY 
STORE WHERE SERVICE IS A TRADITION. 

IT WAS IN 1894 THAT THE NAME OF 
HADDON & SLY FIRST APPEARED ON THE RHODESIAN 
MAP. A MODEST UNPRETENTIOUS GENERAL DEALERS 
BUSINESS WAS OPENED IN BULAWAYO THAT YEAR 
AND IN 1911 THE BRANCH IN SALISBURY WAS ESTAB- 
LISHED. FROM THESE SMALL BEGINNINGS HAVE GROWN 
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE AND MODERN STORES OF 
HADDON & SLY LTD. 



WE HAVE ADVANCED AND PROGRESSED 
WITH THE COLONY OF SOUTHERN RHODESIA AND ARE 
PROUD TO ASSOCIATE OURSELVES WITH ITS IUBILEE 
CELEBRATIONS. 







hddou £ 




"The Leading Store Since Ninety Four" 
BULAWAYO GWELO SALISBURY 



Page 86 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




The first train in Bulawstyo, November 4th, 1897. 



these points, his train passed twenty or thirty gangers' 
cottages. Around them were a number of children 
growing up without education. Metcalfe gave orders 
that arrangements should be made for them to be given 
schooling. The Church, the Company and the Railway 
shared the cost of collecting and teaching them. Thus 
did Plumtree School come into being. 



THE LINE FROM THE EAST 

TF 1890 TO 1697 WERE IMPORTANT YEARS IN THE 
initial stage of rhe fulfilment of Rhodes's dream for a 
Cape to Cairo Railway, 1891 was also a year of great 
importance to Rhodesia, for on June 11, 1891, rhe Portu- 
guese Government agreed to construct a railway between 
Pimgwe (near Beira) and the British sphere of influencs— 
Jfrimtali. 

The day after the Union Jack was hoisted at Salisbury 
(September 15, 1890) Rhodes acquired for one hundred 
pounds a year a concession over Manicaland, and with 
that concession began his dream of Beira as the logical 
pore for Rhodesia. In 1891 Rhodes and several of his 
friends travelled round the coast by sea to Beira and 
then proceeded overland on foot to Umtali in the hottest 
month of the year. The shrewd eyes of Rhodes missed 
nothing, and when he saw the possibilities of an eascern 
sea outlet for Rhodesia, he had planned the project in his 
own mind before Umtali was reached. 



After some delay, occasioned by the ceding of rights 
from one concessionaire to another, construction began 
in September, 1892, at Fontesville on the Pungvve River, 
35A miles from Beira. Umtali, the junction between the 
Beira Railway and the lines serving Rhodesia, was reached 
in February, 1898. 

The line was built to the 2' gauge and construction 
material and other traffic was landed at Beira from overseas 
and conveyed up the Pungwe River to Fontesville. Shortly 
afterwards, however, it was found desirable, to connect 
Fontesville with Beira by rail, and a new company, the 
Beira Junction Railway Company (amalgamated with the 
Beira Railway Company in 1930) was formed to carry out 
this construction, the line being completed in October 
1896. 

In the meantime the limited capacity of the original line, 
and the difficulties of transhipment to the 3' 6" gauge line, 
which was being built from Umtali onwards, led to its 
conversion to the latter standard, and by August 1, 1900, 
a 3' 6" railway was in existence over the whole distance 
between Beira and Umtali. 

The story has often been told of the difficulties under 
which the first engineers laboured. Despite the fact that 
floods frequently hampered operations and the deaih roll 
was heavy, the engineers, Sir George Bruce and Sir Charles 
Metcalfe, Bart., certified the Beira-Fontesville lino as 
complete on October 29, 1896. The names of George 
Pauling and A. L. Lawley will long be remembered as 
being intimately connected with port and railway develop- 
ment in the Beira-Umtali area. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 87 



Spend y owl J4&liaaM& J+esie 




THE 

QUORN HOTEL 

FULLY LICENSED. 

• 

SALISBURY'S NEWEST AND MOST COM- 
FORTABLE HOTEL. 

• 

EXCELLENT CUISINE. 

HOT AND COLD WATER IN ALL BEDROOMS. 

• 

SIX MILES SALISBURY ON MAIN ROAD TO 

NORTHERN RHODESIA. 

• 

TENNIS. 

BADMINTON. 

RIDING BY ARRANGEMENT. 

J* Reservations : 

Proprietor: G. F. SPARLING 

Quorn Hotel. P.O. Avondale. Salisbury, S. Rhodesia 

Phone 9-0131 



Since t&e fayutttwcf, 

the House of Kimptons has been 
selling cars and trucks from Iheir 
premises in Stanley Avenue, Salis- 
bury. Nearly 50 years of service 
to Rhodesians. To-day we are 

AGENTS AND DISTRIBUTORS FOR: 

Chrysler Corporation 

CHRYSLER 
PLYMOUTH 
FARGO 

The Rootes Group 

HUMBER 
HILLMAN 

SUNBEAM-TALBOT 
COMMER 

White Trucks 
Marshall Sons & Co. Ltd. 

FIELD-MARSHALL TRACTOR 

Fowler Diesel Crawler 



KIMPT0NS*4m. 

STANLEY AVENUE 
SALISBURY 



Pace SS 



Sovthern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




•vnaaau.! **™*mBHi4amittatMli&.~ 





SMRiN> 



A STAGE IN THE CAPE TO CAIRO DREAM. 
of the engine naiintea^ emplo P yees vlewed Rhodes > s drea m of a Cape to Cairo railway. 



INLAND DEVELOPMENT 

THE POSITION AT THE END OF 1397 WAS THAT 
both Umtali and Bulawayo were connected with 
ports on the east and south coasts of Africa respectively, 
but a gap of 300 miles between these towns remained to 
be bridged. The construction of the line from Umtali 
to Salisbury was therefore pushed forward and the latter 
town was reached on May 22, 1899. In the same month 
the extension of the line from Bulawayo to Gwelo was 
begun. 

This extension had reached a point near the present 
Insiza siding when che war broke out in October, 1S99, and 
the construction came to a standstill owing to the im- 
mediate difficulties of obtaining permanent way material 
and stores. It was therefore decided to continue the line 
from Salisbury, using the eastern rail route from Beirn 
for the necessary supplies. This extension was begun in 
1900 and proceeded at a reasonable pace to Gwelo- at that 
/ lime an important coaching centre— which was reached in 
May, 1902; then on to Insiza railhead, where a link-up 
was effected five months later, on the 6th October of that 
year, some six months after Rhodes had been buried in 
i he Matopos. 

In a letter written in Bulawayo on September 7, 1900, 
Rhodes said: — 

"As to the commercial aspect, everyone 
supposes that the railway is being built with the 



only object that a human being may be able to 
get in at Cairo and get ouc at Cape Town. 

This is, of course, ridiculous. The object is 
to cut Africa through the centre and the railway 
will pick up trade all along the rouce. The 
junctions to the east and west coasts, which will 
occur in the future, will be outlets for the traffic 
obtained along the route of the line as it passes 
through the centre of Africa. Ac any rate, up to 
Bulawayo, where 1 am now, ii has been a payable 
undertaking, and I still think it will continue to 
be so as we advance into the far interior. Wc 
propose now to go and cross the Zambesi jusi 
below the Victoria Falls. I should like to have the 
spray of the water over the carriages." 

The line northwards from Bulawayo reached Wankie 
in September, 1 90.3 , and the Colliery there was soon 
producing coal for sale. 

On the line went, mile alter mile through Northern 
Rhodesia to Kalorao, which was reached in July, 1904. 
All the material for this section was carried over the 
Victoria Falls gorge by a rope-way pending the completion 
of the bridge, which was officially opened on July 13, 1905. 
The engine which took part in the opening ceremony was 
decorated with palms and flowers and carried the legend: 
"We've got a long way to go." Miss Pauling drove the 
engine, and the official opening was followed by native 
sports and a banquet tor the Europeans. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 89 




SAUSBVAV. 



sta6UsUed.ig3i. 




rffotf* 




EXtHECUtR ACCOUNT IM LONDON. 



***•**; 



79 32 



@ 



Q~^M^4^Mm 



lO, CLCMINT't (.'AN 

LONDO 









■Jh==£ 



A cheque for £3,155,458 ■ 11 • 3 drawn by the Government of Southern Rhodesia in favour 
of the Rhodesia Railways Trust, Ltd., by which the Colony purchased the share capital of the 
Rhodesia Railways. The cheque signed by the High Commissioner for Southern Rhodesia, 
Mr. K. M. E. Goodenough and by Mr. T. G. Gisborne, the Official Secretary, Office of the 
High Commissioner, was handed over to Sir Dougal Malcolm, representing the Rhodesia 
Railways Trust, on Friday, May 16, 1947. This is the largest sum ever paid out by the office 
of the High Commissioner in one payment. 



From Salisbury to Kalomo the financing company was 
the Rhodesia Railways, Limited, which company, how- 
ever, was precluded by the 1899 debenture trust deed 
from giving a first mortgage over the next section of 
281 miles to Broken Hill, where lead and zinc had been 
discovered. This section was therefore financed by the 
Mashonaland Railway Company, and reached Broken 
Hill in January, 1906. crossing en route the Kafuc river. 

The Directors decided ro extend the line still further 
north to tap the rich mineral resources of the Katanga 
copper mines. This last section of the main line was 
completed in November. 1909. under the aegis of the 
Rhodesia. Katanga Junction Railway and Mineral Com- 
pany Limited. This company had been incorporated for 
the purpose in 1908 and in 1909 issued £800,000 5£% 
debentures, the interest being guaranteed tor 20 years by 
Tanganyika Concessions. It was primarily with the 
object of obtaining coke from Wankie that Sir Robert 
Williams (mining engineer to Rhodes and the discoverer 
of the Katanga mines) urged that the mines be served by 
the Rhodesia Railways system. 

T4ic total open mileage was at that time 2,048. Subse- 
quently a number of branch lines were constructed, mostly 
in response to mining needs, so that today the total mileage 
of the Rhodesia Railways system is over 2,400 miles. 

The branch lines include Gwelo to Fort Victoria (123 
miles) and Mount Hampden to Shamva (73 miles) built by 
the Blinkwater Railway Company. This company was 
formed in 1908 with a share capital of £200,000. The 
assets were acquired by the Rhodesia Railways, Limited, 
as from October 1. 1930. 



Another branch line to which special reference must be 
made is the one from Somabula to Shabani (63 miles) 
built by the Shabani Railway Company in 1926. This 
company was incorporated in March, 1926, with a share 
capital of £50,000, the line being constructed to serve the 
asbestos mines at Shabani. 

In the first instance the development of traffic over this 
long line was disappointing and the railways experienced 
many ban years, in which the shareholders participated, 
until development had caught up and was able to supply 
adequate traffic for the facilities provided. But at no time 
did the railways allow development to overtake the 
facilities they had to offer. They kept ahead of require- 
ments by long-term improvement programmes, regrading 
of the lines, bridge-strengthening, stone ballasting, relaying 
with heavier rails, workshops extensions, new station 
facilities, improved rolling stock and more powerful 
locomotives. 

Up to 1927 the whole system was operated by the 
Mashonaland Railway Company under the title of the 
"Beirn and Mashonaland and Rhodesia Railways". As 
from October 1. 1927, however, the Rhodesia Railways, 
Limited, became the working company, and in October 
of the following year the Rhodesia-Katanga Junction 
Railway was taken over by the Mashonaland Railway 
Company. Then as from October 1, 1936, the Rhodesia 
Railways, Limited, acquired all the assets of the Mashona- 
land Railway Company and at the same time all series of 
i he 4 per cent, 5 per cent and 6 per cent debentures were 
converted by an issue of fc'21 ,750,000 4} per cent debenture 
stock. Thus the Rhodesia Railways, Limited, became the 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 91 



HI Ljowi MesuUce . . . 




VAUXHALL 

AND 

BEDFORD 

CARS AND TRUCKS 



LET US QUOTE YOU FOE YOUR REQUIREMENTS 



/ 



MODERN MOTORS LTD. 

SOLE DISTRIBUTORS IN MATABELELAND FOR ALL GENERAL MOTORS PRODUCTS 
MAIN STREET 11th AVENUE 



BULAWAYO 



Phone 2823 



Page 92 



P.O. Box 76 
f 

Southern Rhopesia 1890-1950 



One of the 15th Class Garratt loccmotives in service on the Rhodesia Railwavs. 



owners of the whole railway system in Southern and 
Northern Rhodesia (excluding the Shabani branch) as 
well as the Vryburg-Bulawayo section. 

One other point of importance is the fact that, though 
these railways have hitherto been privately owned, the 

lines within the territories of Southern and Northern 
Rhodesia and the Bechuanaland Protectorate were (since 
1926) subject to the provisions of railway legislation and 
to a control similar to that exercised by the Rates Tribunal 
in England, railway charges being regulated and profits 
limited. 



THE WAR YEARS AND THE FUTURE 

TOURING THE 1914-1918 AND 1939-1945 WORLD 
*^ Wars, the Rhodesia Railways were called upon to 
convey thousands of troops and their equipment, and to 
rush large tonnages of copper, chrome, etc., to Beira and 
the Union for use in the factories of the Allied nations. 

By the time World War II had ended, the Railways 
found themselves in a parlous condition, due to the 
manner in which engines and rolling stock had been over- 
worked. Replacements were difficult to obtain, for many 
nations were clamouring for new equipment to rehabilitate 
their war-ravaged railway systems. Coupled with the 
deterioration of rolling stock was an increased demand 
in the world market for many commodities of which 
Southern and Northern Rhodesia held vast stocks. An 
ambitious programme of development, which it was 
hoped would keep pace with the rapid progress of Rho- 
desia, was initiated. This called for new locomotives and 
rolling stock, nnd more staff, and houses and single quarters 
to accommodate them; better layouts to enable larger 
tonnages to be moved expeditiously without encountering 
bottlenecks. The result of such planning is gradually 
becoming apparent. Train mileages arc on the increase 
and revenue is mounting, but much still remains to be 
done. 

The most important recent event was the change from 
private to State ownership of the undertaking of the 
Rhodesia Railways, Limited, in the territories of Southern 
Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate, as well as 112 miles of line in the Union of 
South Africa from Vryburg to Ramarhlabaroa near 
Mafeking. 



The purchase of the Rhodesia Railways by the Southern 
Rhodesia Government was effected by the acquisition from 
the Rhodesia Railways Trust, as from April 1, 1947, of 
the whole of the share capital or" £500,000 of the Rhodesia 
Railways, Limited, for the sum of £3,150,000. This 
amount approximates to the capitalisation at 4 per cent 

of the dividend of £125,000 which the Rhodesia Railways 
were entitled to earn for the year ended September 30, 
1947, under the terms of the Railway Act, 1935. To 
finance the transaction, as well as to redeem the balance 
of £21,750,000 4i per cent debenture stock of the Rho- 
desia Railways, Limited, outstanding as at September 30, 

1 947, and to provide additiotial capital for the development 
of the railway undertaking, a loan of £30,000,000 was 
raised, being part of the issue of £32,000,000 Government 
of Southern Rhodesia 2-S per cent stock 1965-70. 

Although Southern Rhodesia assumed responsibility 

for the financial arrangements necessary for the acquisition, 
and carried out the transaction, Northern Rhodesia and 
Bechuanaland Protectorate will be substantially interested 

by guaranteeing 20 per cent and 5 per cent, respectively, 
of any deficit which may arise in future for the loan service. 
The Governments concerned will participate in a percentage 
distribution of any surplus (based on the revenue earned 
in their territories) after various commitments detailed in 
the Rhodesia Railways Act 1949 have been met. 

The prospects for the future are bright. The population 

of Southern Rhodesia has increased considerably since 
the end of the war, Rhodesian primary products are in 

heavy demand overseas, and many new industries have 
been established throughout the Colony. The difficulty 
is to keep pace with developments and demands. Planning 
takes time to materialise, especially when men and materials 
are not available locally. Improved operating and increased 
efficiency are making themselves felt, and, as the new 

resources come forward the increase in capacity should 
enable the Railways adequately to serve the country. 



. 



Southlkn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 93 



/ 




*JUe /IdA&U&L OnduAkuf, in RUad&Ua . 



Thirty-eight years ago 'he production cf asbestos in 
bouthern Rhodesia beaan at the Gath's and King Mince 
in the Mashaba district. From small beginni..as in 1913 
Ine industry has grown until, in recent years, "is output 
nas ranked second only lo gold in the list of Rhodesian 
minerals produced. Tho Shabar.i fields were opened up 
soon alter tnose at Mashaba, and the combined output, 
after increasing steadily for a number of years, has now 
reached a figure which represents the optimum lor lona 
term production and efficient operation. The asbestos 
produced is ol the chrysotile variety, and is ol excellent 
qualify. The textile fibre produced from Shabanie Mine, 
in particular, is in great demand because of ils hiah 
tensile strength, silkiness and freedom from impurities 
I he industry at firsl experienced the usual crop of dilfi 
cutties common to all young industries. Suitable methods 
of treatment, grading and the physical state in which the 
manu.ccturers required the grades had to be learned by 
experience. The fact that the Rhodesian chrysotile was 
different from Ihe Canadian product rendered useless the 
application of the methods employed there for recoverma 
Ihe .ibre from the rock or its subsequent treatment. The 
present mining and treatment processes were evolved on 
the mine after careful and detailed study of all the fac ors 

Until recently, the asbestos was generally recovered by 
nand-cobbmg in the open workings; p'.anls, however, 
nave been designed and are successfully workina that 
supplement and wfll in lime completely supersede these 
methods, and make tor greater efficiency in recovery 
Moreover, Ihe plants ol to-day embody highlv elaborate 



methods of treatment and gradtng which secure Ihe 

ihor™Lw n ' fc ", m 'L 1 ; 0| 3rade ™ d texture and e^sSr* a 
thoroughly reliable product. Second only to the Sues-ion 

?L £?"5 en COm S s the all-imporlan! question erf S™ 
Tne Rhodesian industry has been successful in ertahShinn 

L™ world Th* ?'° d ? C ' S *9 S." ,he ***& eoum ies ol 
me world The creation of that market and the aainiia 

SLvL COn! i den09 by 4 nU °™ °"d standardised grades have 
?hZ Ye B\ °j ]a - g " F 3 ? in ,he ""<=«« 'hat has been won by 
™,£ hod P ,an . industry. On Ihe maintenance of that 
nWnH« .v, r ° USn .• s,e ™ lne ss and reliability of suppfy 
depends the continued success of Ihe industry. 

An important ieature of Ihe Rhodesian product is thai 'ho 
percentage of spinning fibre produced in proporfion to fls 
total output ,s far higher than thai o< Canada The 
shor.er grades, moreover, are much in demand for fibre 
^m^KF. r0 f UCl5 - ° n l throughout the world to day supply 
laftc? grades. he unprecedented demand fopTfse 

SSSr. A«8JR 'wor'ld 9 SgUj? «S 
h,°de m m .'nf alS H asbeSl °£ is •4*"* '° violent fluctua°ons 

African AdA*cl<Ue<& Mine* Jlimited 

P.O. Bex 1100, BULAWAYO. 



Taoe 94 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



1U 



RHODESIA! MINING \Wm\X 



by 

F. P. MENNELL, f.g.s., m.i.m.m. 




IS CERTAINLY TRUE TO SAY 
mill the occupation of this country 

had for its basis the idea of expansion 
of the Empire, planted in the mind of 
Cecil Rhodes by Rtiskin in his lectures 
at Oxford. This was, of course, 
advocated in a very different spirit from 

that of mere jingoism— the bogey of 

imperialism" conjured up by certain 
Leftist writers. Both Ruskin and Rhodes believed chat 
the advance of civilisation was best ensured under British 
auspices. The profir motive had very little to do with 
it, but it was obviously necessary, in order to enlist 

sufficient financial backing, to offer some prospect of 
material reward for those who embarked their capital 
in support of the project. This took the form of a share 
in the proceeds of working the minerals in which the 
country was believed to be rich. 

Nor is it any aspersion 
on the character of the 
original pioneers to say 
that the lure of sold was 
largely responsible for 
their decision to proceed 
to Mashonaland. They 
had their living to make 
like other people, and if 
lliey hoped to make it in 
a less humdrum way than 
most, they also had to 
take far greater risks and 
face much greater hard- 
ships to make up for the 

romance with which their 

calling was invested. 

At the time of" the Occu- 
pation in 1890 the country 
certainly was invested 
with an air of mystery 
and romance. 



ANCIENT MINE WORKINGS 

T^HE MOST POPULAR OF RIDER HAGGARD'S 
■i widely-read novels were tounded on the tales spread 
abroad by the few hunters and other travellers who had 
braved the very real perils that had to be faced in traversing 
these inaccessible regions. They told of the numerous 
ancient mine workings, and even of massive stone buildincs 
m some parts of the same areas. And while it is true that 
the 9arly legendary ideas connecting the Zimbabwe and 

other nuns with the Phoenicians cannot be upheld, it is 
by no means so certain that the "ancient workings" may 
not, in some cases, date to a very remote period. The 
knowledge of mining which they display may well have 
been derived, as the art of working iron must surely have 
been, either directly or indirectly from the ancient 
Egyptians. This would leave it an open question whether 
the tradition which suggested Milton's reference in 
Paradise Lost to Sofala, thought Ophir" may not have 
a more solid basis than appeared probable when the 
belief in the great antiquity of Zimbabwe was first shown 

to be without foundation. In this connection it is perhaps 



Forty-nine years ago, as a young man aged 21, Frederic Philip 
MenneU came to Southern Rhodesia to start the. Rhodesian 
Museum. for the past 42 years he has been closeh connected 
with the Colony s mining industry, so that he speaks with 
authority and experience in the accompanying article. The 

Member for Bulawayo District in Southern Rhodesia's first 
Parliament after the grant of Responsible Government, 
Mr- MennM s interests have been varied, and he ha< served 
both on the Htstoncal Monuments Commission and the 
electricity Supply Commission. Among the books on mining 
5™"; teJWM written are "Hints on Prospecting for Gold"'. 
lrte Khodesian Miners' Handbook" and "A Quide w 
Mining in Rhodesia". 



significant thai ancient workings for gold are, in tact 
absent from parts of the gold belt near Zimbabwe itself 
where some of the first claims were pegged, and from 
the untouched outcrops on which the first recorded 
production ol the precious metal was derived 

Owing to their distance from the coast it is probable 
that che old mines were worked by the inhabitants of the 
country by the traditional methods which thev had brought 
down from the north, without any direct foreign influence 
of later date. They had, of course, the encouragement 
afforded by being able to exchange their product for various 
articles erf luxury with the traders who ventured some 
par of the way inland lo various places— of which Sena 
is the best known— where marts existed long before the 
farst European set fool in East Africa. The port of Sofala 
(which has since been superseded by that of Beira, a little 
to the north of it and, as Milton's reference to it indicates) 
was evidently rhc principal outlet at that time for the 
products of the region which included what is now 

Rhodesia. It was reported 

by the first Portuguese 

~~ navigators who sailed 

along the East Coast 450 

years ago to have a regular 
trade in gold, ivory and 

ostrich feathers. 

The presence of the 
numerous ancient work- 
ings, which, if may be em- 
phasised, included many 
lor copper and iron as 
well : as for gold, had a 
great influence on the 
work of the early pros- 
pectors. As soon as they 
were released from their 
duties with the Column 
which reached Salisbury 
in September. 1890, the 
pioneers spread about the 
. . . . country and soon nene- 

traced into most of the Mashonaland gold-belts. In many 
of these almost every occurrence of gold-bearing rock 
rhl-f Iread V, bee V,Pened up by the "ancients." Instead, 
tTZ S ' °' n ar K tul i V ^taing ? likel V ""act of country 
and testing all the favourable-looking outcrops (as is the 
usual procedure elsewhere) the search for gold largely 
resolved itself inco getting natives to disclose the where. 
dweUin's workings in the vicinity of their 

The usual inducement to do so was to make them 
presents of blankets, whence the term "blanket prospecting- 
tOTJk A- commo,,1 ^ed. The success of this procedure 
had the distinctly unfortunate result that it did not tend 
to train the newcomer in the routine of prospecting as 
understood elsewhere. Many opportunities were ever! 
overlooked owing co overestimating the powers of the 
Old ancients as they were commonly termed. It began 
o be believed that anything they had not tried was worth- 
less, while, on the other hand, if the workings were large 
there was a tendency to think that all the ore of anv value 
had already been taken out. This was actually the case 
with the first prospecting party to see the Globe and 
Phoenix alter the occupation of Matabcleland, and it led 
as I was informed by their leader, Mr. H. Shepherd, to 



, . -i "—■' ""*»] I'll. II. OJ 

ondertul property s being left unpegged! 



Southern Rhodesia 1890 1950 



Pace 95 



The Bechuanaland Exploration, Company, Ltd. 

AGMCI CHAMBERS, MAIN STREET, IJLLAWAYO 



AGENTS FOR THE 
African Chrome Mines, Limited 
Charterland 4 General, Limited 
Chrome Corporation (South Africa). Ltd. 
Eileen Alannah Mining Company. Limited 
Kafue Development Company, Limited 
Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines. Ltd. 
New Bulawayo Syndicate. Limited. 
E. Oppenheimer & Son 



FOLLOWING COMPANIES : 

Rhodesia Broken Hill Development Company, Limited 

Rhodesia Chrome Mines, Limited 

Bhokana Corporation, Limited 

Selukwe Gold Mining & Finance Company, Limited 

The Tobacco Co. of Rhodesia & South Africa, Limited 

Umtali Mines. Limited 

Union Insurance Society of Canton. Limited 



Royal 



COMPANY ' 



The Company has Land for lease or sale and is prepared to take up Mining Claims 

on option or for outright purchase. 



Chief Agents tor - ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED 



ALL CLASSES OF INSURANCE UNDERTAKEN 

Customs Clearing and Forwarding Agents 



Representing 
ALLEN. WACK & SHEPHERD. LIMITED 
CONSOLIDATED STEVEDORING & FORWARDING AGENCY (SOUTH AFRICA) LIMITED 
I. W. PHILLIPS, O.B.E. — GENERAL MANAGER 
Tol. Add.: "KHAMALAND" and "CONFA." Bulawavo „ , , 

,,,,„„ Telephones 3220 and 317S 

Postal Address: P.O. Box 592, Bulawayo. Southern Rhodo.ia 



THE SOUTH AFRICAN TIMBER 
COMPANY LIMITED 



Established 1906 



Telegiams: "SATCOY" 



BRANCH : 
P.O. Box 584 
BULAWAYO 



/ 




BRANCH : 

P.O. Box 54 

BEIRA, P.E.A. 



Hoad Office- : P.O. Box 394. SALISBURY 



Direct Importers of Building Materials 



Pace 96 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




BARON DE REZENDE 
Manager of the Mozambique Company, and associated 
with Jeffreys in locating the goldfields of Manicaland. 



INSUFFICIENT EXPERIENCE OF CONDITIONS 

TT WAS A GREAT DRAWBACK TO THESE EARLY 
L attempts at mining that so few trained miners were 
available at the start of operations. Such matters as 
surface enrichment and the distribution and pitch of ore 

shoots were seldom understood, while mistakes were noi 
infrequent even in regard to the dip of the reefs. Another 
decided disadvantage with which the industry had to 
contend was the neighbourhood of the Rand. This often 
led engineers who had gained their experience on thai 
great goldfield into one of two equally serious errors in 
dealing with Rhodesian properties. They were apt either 
to work them at quite unnecessary expense with shafts 
and equipment altogether unsuited to the short shoots 
of ore usual in Rhodesia, or, going to the other extreme, 
to condemn as worthless prospects which did not conform 

to Rand standards in various ways. 

This was a singularly unfortunate procedure, as will be 
realised from the fact that one property so turned down 
covered what were afterwards repegged as the Cam and 
Motor claims, which head the list of producers at the 
present day. My information on this point came from 
Mr. Harvey Brown, a former Mayor of Salisbury, who was 
one of the original owners. 



TIJE MINING LAW AND THE SMALLWORKER 

A NOTHER FACTOR WHICH HAD AN ADVERSE 
-t\ influence on the progress of the mining industry was 
the provision in the mining laws that working for profit, 
or in other words actual production as opposed to the 
preliminary development work, was only permitted on 
the flotation of a limited company in which a large part 
of the vendor interest had to be allotted to the Chartered 
Company. This provision was intended to help in re- 
couping the Company for the expenditure it necessarily 
incurred in the occupation of the country, but in view of 
the small size of the majority of the mines it constituted a 
very definite bar to progress. 



Other influences that had unfortunate effects were the 
Matabele War in 1893, the native rebellions in 1896 and 
the Boer War that started in 1899. On the other hand, 
it is true that the occupation of Matabeleland gave a marked 
impetus to prospecting by opening up new and promising 

fields, especially Sebakwc, Selukwe, Bulawayo and Gwanda. 
Nevertheless, the provisions relating to the flotation of 
mining claims prior to production continued to form a 
serious stumbling block. In 1903 the visiting directors of 
the B.S.A. Company eventually agreed to allow the 
milling of ore on a small scale in return for a royalty on 

the gross output, The same terms were extended in 
August, 1904, to outputs up to 1,500 oz. a month, and 
finally a royalty basis was applied to all new producers 
at the end of 1907. There can be no doubt that the 
abrogation of the "fifty per cent clause", as the provision 
tor the Chartered Company sharing in the vendor interest 
Of mining flotations was termed, was one of the most 
important steps in putting the industry on a sound basis. 




FIRST PEG 

Pioneer, 10 claims, Umfuli, Hartley District, pegged 
1st October, 1890 (the day after the Pioneer Corps were 
disbanded). Transferred to Rhodesia Goldfields Ltd., 
21st October, 1898, and abandoned by them, 28th Decem- 
ber, 1898. The inscription reads: "Pioneer. United 
Rhodesia Gold Fields, Regd. 1.10.90. No. 3, Inspd. 
6.1.91. End Centre E." 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1 950 



Pace 97 



''Zfdftirty TQAodeAfa fauv" 



For over (ifty-three years COPTHALLS have been privileged to assist m 
in the development of the Rhodesias by supplying that efficient machinery, 
equipment, and service which is so necessary tor progress, and look 
forward with confidence to the continued privilege of serving the Rhodesias 
in the years ahead, 

(ESTABLISHED 18S7) 

COPTHALLS 

(J. P. YOUNG & SON) 
IRRIGATION ENGINEERS AND MACHINERY MERCHANTS 

P.O. Box 70 P -°- Box 6 " 

BULAWAYO SALISBURY 



FAIRBANKS-MORSE 



DUMPS AND PUMPING PLANTS. IRRIGATION SUPPLIES. 
OIL ENGINES. ELECTRICAL MACHINERY. SCALES. 
GRINDING MILLS. RAILROAD EQUIPMENT. COAL 

STOKERS. INDUSTRIAL, AGRICULTURAL AND MINING 
EQUIPMENT. 




A SYMBOL OF CONFIDENCE 
FOR OVER 100 YEARS 



OHicial Service .Agents and 

Stockists ior : 

LUCAS 

Electrical Equipmont 

C A. V. 

Electrical and Fuel 
Injection Equipment 

It- &• im» 

Motor Cyclos 






.9°* *A, 
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<0> 



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vV V ^ 



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Specialists in : 

Magneto and Auto 

Electrical Equipment 

Armature Winding 

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Speedometers 

BATTERY DEALERS 
Charging and maintenance 
to all makes oi batteries 

K.L.G. PLUGS 

AUTOMOTIVE CABLES 
AND ACCESSORIES 



Pack 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




LOBENGULA - S BATTERY 
Lobengula sent Dawson to secure some claims as soon 
as the Pioneer Column had settled at Fort Salisbury. 
Ground was secured at Hartley Hill, and an old five-stamp 
battery was erected. Dawson was placed in charge and 
had considerable difficulty with the old machinery. As 
wealth did not materialize, Lobengula shut down. He 
was given a button of gold which represented the total 
output of his mine. 



The result was a complete change in the course of a 
few years from a general attitude of pessimism regarding 
the future to one ot exuberant optimism. Numbers of 
"small workers*', as they were called, started on claims of 
their own, a considerable proportion of which had been 
abandoned by the mining companies as insufficiently large 

or rich for them. Other mining men continued the 
practice of "tribucing" from the companies mines which 
had been developed, sometimes on an extensive scale, but 
had proved disappointing for one reason or another. 
This was often nothing more than the failure to work with 
sufficient economy or with suitable methods, and I can 
say without hesitation — having been here at the time — that 
it was the smallworker who taught most ot the companies 
how to run a mine. 

He had to make ends meet with little or no capital to 
back him up, and the result was that systems of mining 
and treatment were soon evolved which were suited to 
local conditions. Of course, there were failures, but it is 
remarkable how many of the men were successful, especi- 
ally those who had some previous knowledge ot handling 
machinery. 

The position ot the companies was very favourably 
affected by the activity which ensued. Various properties 
opened by small workers proved sufficiently attractive to 
be taken over for flotation and operation on a larger scale 
than was possible without the provision of ample capital 
tor development and equipment. After the signal success 
of die Eldorado mine, added to the good showing by the 
Giant and other companies, had led the way, a boom 
period followed, during which the Loneiy, the Shamva, 
the Cam and Motor and other claims were acquired from 
smallworkers and developed into important producers. 
It was not until the 1914 War broke out, however, that 
this was fully reflected in the output returns; the import- 
ance of the mining industry to Rhodesia is strikingly 
illustrated by the fact that the gold produced was for many 
years of sufficient value to pay tot the whole of the imports 
into rhe country, a state of affairs which lasted till 1917. 
In that year, it may be mentioned, the value of the gold 
output was enough to pay the total government expenditure 
nearly five times over! 



SECONDARY MINERALS TO THE FORE 

r THE VARIOUS MINERALS WHICH NOW PROMISE 
- 1 - to contribute so much more largely than gold ever 
did to the total output came upon the scene by slow 
degrees. Lead, rather curiously, was the first base metal 
to figure on the output returns, this being due to the fact 
that it was contained in concentrates from the two leading 
mines of rhe Umtali district. This was in 1903, a year 
which added to its other very substantial records of 
progress the first output of coal, as the railway was extended 

towards Wankie. Diamonds and other precious stones 
from Somabula came in during I 90S, as also did chrome 
ore from the great Selukwe deposits. Regular production 
of this very important mineral began in the middle of 
1906, a cime which also saw the first outputs of copper, 

chiefly from the small smelter at West Nicholson, where a 
matte was produced containing gold and silver that could 
not otherwise be recovered. Tungsten came on the scene 
at the same time, the ore being wolframite from Essexvale, 
to be followed in 1907 by scheelite from Umsweswe. 
The first output ot antimony had already been declared 
in February of that year. 

A very important event was the appearance of asbestos 
on the returns for 1908: by 1919 it had taken a place 
second only to gold. Tin ore was produced for the first 
time in 1916, though it had been known at a number of 
localities since 1908. In 1919 a start was made in the 
production of arsenic from local occurrences, while mica 
was added to the list in the same year. Some nickel ore 
was produced in the 'thirties, and small amounts of other 
mincrals like :inc and manganese, platinum and tantalum, 
corundum, graphite, barytes and fluorspar have been 
mined, as well as ironscone, ochre, and iron pyrites. 

During the last few years an endeavour has been made — 
at last — to produce iron itself in the neighbourhood of 
Que. Que. This is a step forward in the direction of 

supplying from local sources rhe more important materials 
on which the development of industries can be based. 
More recently still, the discovery of a large deposic of 

phosphates, from which production has so far been only 
on an experimental scale, should shortly render us self- 
supporting in this very important type of fertiliser. 
Vermiculite, which has attracted much attention during 
the past tew years in the Union of South Africa, is the 
last mineral to come into production. 




FIRST EXPORT OF GOLD 

First regular production from the Geelong Mine, Twenty 

Stamp Battery, September, 1898. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 




YOUR HOME 

the background to your life, should be more 
than mere living quarters. You owe it to 
your family and to yourself to make your home 
as attractive and comfortable as within your 
means, creating an atmosphere where you may 
enjoy your leisure to the fullest extent and in 
which you will be proud to welcome your 
friends. 

Banet & Harris have the type of furniture 
and furnishings which will provide dignity, 
comfort and luxury for your home, be it a flat 
or a mansion. 

In our showrooms you will find a large 
variety of beautiful designs manufactured from 
quality materials and at very reasonable prices. 



/ 



BANET & HARRIS LTD. 



(SUCCESSORS TO P. LAZARUS & CO.) 
FURNITURE & UPHOLSTERY SPECIALISTS 

P.O. BOX 543 — PHONE 24980 
COLONIAL MUTUAL BUILDINGS — — GORDON AVENUE 
SALISBURY SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



Page 100 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




TULLOCH'S WATER-WHEEL, made of whisky cases, on the Umtali River below the waterfall, and used for 

crushins ore from the Liverpool Mine, 1896. 



GOLD 

THAT GOLD IS SO MUCH THE MOST PROMINENT 
among the mineral products of the country shows 
that the industry is still in an early stage of development. 
It has, however, passed one important milestone in that 
1948 saw the combined total value of the other metals 
and minerals surpass that of gold. This has been im- 
pending for some time, in fact the same thing occurred 
before as Ion" ago as 1929. Only a combination of circum- 
stances including low prices and the outbreak of war 
prevented the present situation from becoming permanent 
some years since. All chc same, it must be remembered 
tvthat the gold output has not only been of the utmost 
" assistance in the development of the country but still 
remains a matter of much importance. So far the history 
of the mining industry has been largely a tale of the enter- 
prise and efforts of the gold producer, and ic is a matter 
for regret that his stimulating influence on prospecting has 
so greatly diminished, partly as a result of an otherwise 
desirable feature, deeper mining. Unfortunately it appears 
inevitable that the output should continue to decrease. 

That we shall be doing very well if we manage to keep 
up somewhere near the prescne level for any length of time 
will be evident when it is realised that we do noc now 

produce as many ounces as we did forty years ago. The 



peak year was 1916, when a figure of over 930,000 ounces 
was reached, but after 1918 it fell again to very much the 
same on the average as in 1907 and 1908. Under the 
influence of the gold premium another rise took place in 
the thirties, and from 1936 to 1941 inclusive the output 
was either over or very little under 800,000 ounces per 
annum, It fell sharply in 1943 since when it has decreased 
to 5 14,000 ounces for 1948. While the price is up, it has 
been largely offset by increased costs and the fall in the 
purchasing power of the pound as well as by the shortage 
of labour. Nearly 30 million ounces, worth about 167 
million sterling have been produced to date. 



GOLD OCCURRENCE 

GOLD OCCURS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED 
throughout Southern Rhodesia among the extremely 
ancient rocks known as schists. These are often indeed 
called the "gold belt formation," or, as abbreviated by 
the old time prospector, simply "formation". A 
heavy red soil. covers most of the gold belts and renders 
them easy to distinguish from the great stretches 
of granite which occupy half the entire country and are 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 101 



Jiaii (IkoJUua ! 



BIRKMYRE'S CLOTH DEFIES THE WEATHER. QUALITY IS REMEMBERED 
LONG AFTER PRICE IS FORGOTTEN. ASK ANY RHODESIAN. 



for 

B 
U 
C 
K 

S 
A 
I 
L 

S 




for 

T 
E 

N 
T 
S 



. . . and the Ptrn^'d. m euesm fyib^e 

Throughout the globe — from the tropics to the frozen wastes — Birkmyre's Cloth 
enjoys a high reputation for its weather-resisting qualities and reliability under the 
most testing climatic conditions. The reason for the superior water-proofing qualities 
of Birkmyre's Cloth is easily understood. The Birkmyre process ensures that the 
fabric is made water-proof, not only on the surface, but RIGHT THROUGH. 

BIRKMYRE'S CLOTH CAME INTO RHODESIA WITH THE PIONEERS AND 
HAS STAYED EVER SINCE TO BUILD UP A REPUTATION THAT HAS 
GROWN WITH THE COLONY. 



/ 




ROPES & CANVAS (AFRICA) LTD. 



Tent and Sail Makers : Canvas and Ropework of 
AH Kinds : : Verandah and Window Awnings 



STANLEY 
P.O. Box 
S A L I S 8 



AVE. 

2 7 7 

U R Y 



ABERCORN ST. 
P.O. Box 16 
BULAWAYO 



Page 102 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




when present, is usually conspicuous. 
There are, however, quite a few de- 
posits of the second group which show 
little or no gold in the pun. It is 
among such cases that there is most 
hope for future discoveries: the 
Lonely mine in its declining years 
treated large tonnages from bands of 
mineralised schist in the neighbour- 
hood, at least one of which showed no 
gold whatever in the pan. Other dis- 
coveries will doubtless be made of 
reefs, etc., now covered by soil, when 
exposed by excavations put down 
without a thought of finding gold in 
most cases. 



AT WANK1E.— A. Giese <in chair) discoverer of the Wankie Coal Fields, 
and two coloured hunters who used to work for the trader Westbeech at 

Pandamatenka . 



characterised by poor sandy soil. Though only about a 
quarter the area of the granite masses, the patches of 
"formation" are still very extensive, and there is room for 
serious prospecting even now. The granite also contains 
gold at times, but as a rule only in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the schists. The Globe and Phoenix and the 
Tcbekwe, for example, are partly in one rock rind partly 
in the other. The granite in these cases is usually so 
altered as to be almosc unrecognisable, the bulk of the 
ordinary types being entirely barren. There are a few 
occurrences of gold among some of the younger rocks laid 
down upon the granite or penetrating it in the form of 
intrusions. 

The deposits in which the precious metal is embedded 
vary considerably, but it is possible to classify them in 
two main groups. There are many which are commonly 
termed reefs, usually of hard quart:, which are sharply 
defined from the enclosing "country rock'". They may 
extend for considerable distances, but are seldom more 
than a few feet in width. Some valuable mines have been 
on reefs only about a foot on the average; on the other 
hand you may get at times an exceptional bulge up to 
20 or 30 feet for a limited distance. When the length 
of strike is considerable, it does not at all follow that the 
whole of it, or indeed more than a small fraction of the 
total, contains payable gold. The valuable portion is 
known as a "shoot," and a shoot may extend downward 
for a long way into the ground. Such cases are exceptional, 
but it is, of course, the exceptional cases that make the 
valuable mines. The other class of deposit may be called 

an impregnation or dissemination, and may consist ol 
any kind of rock, replaced to some extent by mineral matter, 
and be nearly as wide as it is long. The impregnations 
include comparatively narrow bands of mineralised schist 
,-^or of "banded ironstone", very like an ordinary reef. The 
width in oiher cases, however, may make all the difference 
to the payability, and may compensate for a short strike 
and for a limited extension in depth. 

* ■* * * 

PROSPECTS OF FUTURE DISCOVERIES 
T-HE USUAL METHOD OF TESTING THE VALUE 
-*- of a reef is by panning, i.e., washing off the lighter 
materials in water, leaving a heavy residue in which gold, 



ASBESTOS 
HTHE VALUABLE MINERAL FIBRE KNOWN FROM 

-*- the earliest times for its resistance to fire under the 
names of asbestos or amianthus claims special attention 
owing to its being by far the most important of all the 
non-metallic minerals produced in Rhodesia at the present 
day. There is more than one sort of asbestos, that fetching 
the highest price being really a variety of the common 
mineral serpentine, which forms large masses of rock in 
many parts of rhe colony. It was first opened up in 1907 
by a Bulawayo syndicate consisting of Messrs. G. S. D. 
Forbes, H. S. Hodges and F. P. Menncll, with the active 
assistance of Mr. A. A. Heyman, then Mining Commis- 
sioner at Fort Victoria. It was no easy matter at the start 
to gain a footing in a market dominated by firms interested 
in rival deposits elsewhere. After several reconstructions, 
during which the original holders dropped out, Gath's 
claims at Mashaba were amalgamated with the Shabani 
find, made by Mr. M. Kerr in 1915. They were taken 
over by the Rhodesian and General Asbestos Corporation, 
which was formed in 1917 and soon became the leading 
producer of high grade asbestos. Other finds had meantime 
been made near the two big mines and elsewhere. It is 

now admitted that the Rhodesian chrysotile is unsurpassed, 
and it is interesting as a reversal of former prejudices that 
it is actually mixed with the Canadian fibre to improve, 
the spinning qualities of the latter. In 1948 the production 
of asbestos in Southern Rhodesia was 68,896 tons, valued 
at £2,604,623, this being more than the combined total 
o( all the other base minerals. There is plenty of room 
for the further expansion of the industry. New fields 
may well be developed in some of the numerous areas of 
serpentine, by no means all of which have been exhaustively 
prospected e%'en now. 



CHROME 

T->HE MINERAL CHROMITE OR CHROMIC IRON 
■*- ore, always locally known as "chrome," has recently 
been next in value co asbestos. Like the latter it is found 
exclusively in serpentine or rocks closely related to it, 
but does not often affect the same localities, though there 



SotJTHGRN- RhODLSIA 1890-1950 



Page 103 



mum FOR TOMORROW 




/ 



Rhodesia's rapid de- 
velopment and plans 
for the future call for 
increasing employmenl 
of reinforced concrete 
constructions. 

We are Structural and Reinforcing 
Engineers and specialise in all Structural 
Steelwork, Reinforced Concrete and Plate - 
work, and our resources and initiative are 
devoted to the plans for the constructions 
of tomorrow's Rhodesia. 

LYSAGHT & CO. 

LIMITED 

STRUCTURAL AND REINFORCING ENGINEERS 
Lytton Road, Industrial Sites P.O. Box 205 

Tel. 22529 Tel. Add.: "Lycon" 

SALISBURY SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



Page 104 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-195C 




Aerial view of Wankie Colliery. 



is some being mined at Mashaba. The principal centre 

of production is Selukwe, but other localities have large 
outputs. The Selukwe deposits were first brought to 
notice by Mr. J. Hazlehurst in 1904. Large irregular bodies 
are scattered about in the hilly country there, and may be 
almost solid chromite. It is the aim of the mining methods 
employed to get the stuff out with as little dilution as 
possible by valueless matrix. Remarkably extensive 
deposits also occur in the so-called "Great Dyke", which 
cuts right across Southern Rhodesia from North to South. 
These are of quite a different type, consisting of flat-lying 
seams so narrow as to be measured in inches rather than 
feet. They are often rich and continuous for great distances, 
but they are not easy to extract without a lot of waste. 
The material has often to be washed or otherwise con- 
centrated to be rendered marketable, and concentration is 

also practised on some of the finer material from Selukwe. 
The resulting product is of high grade, and is only excelled 
by that of the much smaller deposits in Baluchistan. In 
recent years the Turkish mines, owing to the rise in price 
of the mineral and their more ready accessibility from 
most of Europe, have had a renewal of activity and the 
Union of South Africa is producing a good deal of low 
grade material. Nevertheless Rhodesia is still potentially 
of the first importance, and can put much more chrome 
on the market as transport conditions become easier. 
The 1948 output was 254,308 tons valued at £825,414, 



over 80,000 tons more than for the previous year, and 
nearly double as much in value. 



COAL 

TN VIEW OF THE FACT THAT COAL IS THE MOST 
*■ important mineral product of the world, exceeding all 
others both in tonnage and value, it is very satisfactory that 
Rhodesia should possess such very extensive coalfields. 
They occur in the lower parts of the country both north 
and south of the central plateau, and occupy much of the 
northern part of Matabeleland, while they run right 
through the southern portion of Mashonaland, being 
especially prominent in the Sabi valley. The Wankie 
coalfield, between Bulawayo and the Victoria Falls, was 
located by Mr. A. Giese shortly after the Occupation. 
After some initial difficulties, the Wankie Colliery, which 
will always be associated with the name of Mr. A. R. 
Thomson, who was General Manager for 25 years, has 
provided for the needs of the colony ever since. The 
present outpuc is not in any way commensurate with the 
enormous resources of the country in this essential fuel, 
which arc exceeded by few countries in the world. That 
which is mined today is a semi-bituminous variety, very 
suitable for steam raising, but other types occur in the 
other fields. In 1948, 1,868,669 tons were raised, their 
value being given, as £748,053, over £125,000 more than 
during the previous year. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890- 1950 



Rage 105 




/ 



depend for their continued advancement on 
reliable and regular supplies of quality tools and 
materials. The organization of Baldwins (S.A.) 
Limited maintains this service in catering for the 
requirements of the Mining, Building, Engineering 
and numerous secondary industries. Stocks of 
Steel, Galvanized Iron, Timber, Wallboard and all 
Builders' and Plumbers' requirements are always 
held at our Bulawayo and Salisbury depots, and 
amongst the world-famous names we represent 
are "BROOM & WADE" (Air Compressors end 
Tools) — "FIRTH BROWN" (Steels and Tools) - 
"BERESFORD" (Pumps). 

Consult Baldwins for your requirements and be 
sure of quality and efficient service. 



L_ 



BALDWINS 



(S.A.) LIMITED 



P.O. Box 440 P.O. Box 1681 

BULAWAYO SALISBURY 

HEAD OFFICE : JOHANNESBURG, and BRANCHES AT CAPE TOWN 
DUR3AN. FAST LONDON nnd PORT ELIZABETH. 



! 



Page 106 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-19? 




Open Asbestos workings at Mashaba. 



COPPER 

T-HIS METAL IS ONLY BEING PRODUCED IN 
small amounts at present, but it has figured quite 

prominently on the returns in former years, and there is 
every reason to anticipate that it will assume an important 
place in the future. Vasco da Gama called the Limpopo 

the "Copper River" when he saw it for the first time on 

his voyage along the east coast. There are in fact numerous 
ancient workings for the red metal both in the vicinity of 
chat river and various other parts of Southern Rhodesia, 

among them two of the largest in the country. The first 
production, under modern conditions was from a small 
blast furnace at the Wesc Nicholson mine, Gwanda, and 
was in the form of a matte rich in the precious metals. 
Nearly all the ores worked so far have attracted attention 
through their content of gold, the greater pare of the 
output having come from the Falcon mine at Umvuma. 
The orebody there was a gold-bearing reef, full of sulphides, 

like that of the Valley mine which provided the concentrate 

smelted at West Nicholson. The plant was however, a 
much larger one, and the treatment was carried a stage 
further to produce blister copper. The smelter also served 
the very useful purpose of treating custom ores from 

other parts of the country, and the lack of similar facilities 

at the present day is much to be regretted. The production 
of the metal has reached the considerable total of 
£3,000,000, but there are deposits known in the more 



remote parts of the country capable of outputs on a still 
larger scale wich the improvement of transport and other 
conditions. 



MICA 

'pHIS IS ONE OF THE MOST INTERESTING OF 

■*■ the non-metallic minerals, and though the industry 

has had a decidedly chequered career since its first flush 

period during the twenties, there is no reason why it 
should not continue to flourish for many years to come. 

The production has nearly all been from near Miami in 
the Lomagundj district, where mica is found among a 
series of gneissic rocks presumed to be highly altered 
representatives of the same formation as that containing 
the great copper deposits of Northern Rhodesia. The actual 
matrix is a coarse aggregate of quart: and felspar, forming 
wich the mica itself a pegmatite occurring in more or less 
vein-like masses or dvkes, of very variable width. The 

mica is of the variety known as "muscovite," and forms 
what are aptly named "books," which are usually found 
at or near the margins of the dykes, cither continuously 
or in patches. They lie at all angles, and are somctitrcs 
crowded so closely that they touch each other. They 
may be split into any number of perfectly flat sheets which 
usually have what is generally termed a "ruby" tint when 



Southern Rhomsja 1 K90- 1 95 



Pace 107 




/ 



EMCO MILLS, UMTALI, SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 

TELEPHONE 228 MANAGING DIRECTOR (A. H. VAN COLLER). 

TELEPHONE 300 TRANSPORT, CARTAGE, RIVER AND PIT SAND. 

TELEPHONE 450 CUSTOMS CLEARING AND SHIPPING, WARE- 
HOUSING. 

TELEPHONE 201 ENQUIRIES, FIREWOOD. COAL, CATTLE AND 

PIG FEEDS. 

TELEPHONE 229 EMCO CREAMERY AND MILK DEPARTMENT. 

TELEPHONE 768 EMCQ MILLS MEAL, CRUSH MEALIES, FOWL 

FOODS. 

HODGSON & MYBURGH 

LIMITED 

ESTABLISHED 1396 

CLEARING, FORWARDING & COMMISSION AGENTS. PRODUCE DEALERS 




UMTALI 

S. BHODESIA 



Page 108 



Southern Rhodesia 1890 




Small gold mine neat Bulawayo. 



not too thin. The larger and more transparent sheets are 
used for lamp chimneys, stove fronts, etc., but the chief 
use nowadays is for electrical goods, mien being unrivalled 
as an insulator under the most trying conditions. There is 
a great amount of waste during the process of" splitting 
and trimming the sheers for the market, and the stuff as 
mined only yields a few per cent of trimmed mica. Scrap 
is used for milking lubricants and many other minor 
purposes, and may also be cemented together to make 
composite sheets. The Rhodesian mica is of the highest 
quality, and the best is not distinguishable from the finest 
Indian mica, which was previously regarded as unrivalled. 
The annual output has been worth in the neighbourhood 
of £150,000 in recent years, and the grand total is getting 

on for a million and a half. 



TUNGSTEN, TIN AND TANTALUM 

THESE THREE MINERALS, LIKE THE VERY 
different one dealt with in the last section, invariably 
occur in association with granite or its offshoots, usually 
pegmatite or a related type of rock. The first tungsten to 
be worked came from the deposit of wolframite round 
Mr. J. P. Richardson's homestead at Essexvale, of which 
the ruins can still be seen among the excavations. The 
initial output from this source was declared in August, 
1906, the mineral having been identified in January, 1905. 
Samples had come in from the Sabi valley two months 
previously. Scheelite, the other tungsten mineral, which 
is much more widely distributed, was first exported not 
Jong after, namely in April, 1907. It was from a quart: 
-Aeef in granite found near the Umsweswe river by Mr. 
Rowland Buck in September, 1906. While wolfram has 

been chiefly extracted from rubble, scheelite is often found 
in gold reefs, as, for instance at the Golden Valley mine, 
which has produced quite a lot. It is certain that a larger 
amount might have been recovered by concentration from 
a number of other reefs if more attention had been paid 
to the heavy minerals associated with gold. The Scheelite 
King at Mazoe and the Hippo Mine on the lower Sabi 



were substantial producers during the war, but the centre 
of gravity of the industry has shifted back recently to the 
Wankie and Bulawayo areas. The total output so far has 
been 4,723 tons of concentrates worth nearly a million 

pounds. 

Tin, which is a common associate of tungsten elsewhere 
keeps quite clear of it in the local deposits as a rule. The 
first finds of the metal were made in 1908, but production 

did nor start till 1919. This was from the Victoria district, 
but in later yenrs discoveries were made near the edge of 
the Wankie coalfield. The granite in which it occurs 
there has a marked resemblance in some important respects 
to that of Cornwall, the earliest source of tin, and the area 
has recently become much the most prolific producer. 
The total production in the country has amounted to 
3,180 tons of concentrates worth over £600,000. 

Tantalum is decidedly rarer than the two minerals 
dealt with above. It occurs near the tin and tungsten 
lodes at the eastern extremity of the Victoria gold belt, 
where it was recognised during the first world war. Very 
little reached the market till after the outbreak of the 
second war, furcher discoveries having been made mean- 
time between Umtali and Salisbury. Altogether over a 
hundred tons of concentrates have been sold, realising 
more than forty thousand pounds. 



OTHER MINERALS 

TT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO REFER IN DETAIL TO THE 
•"- many other minerals which have contributed to the 
output, though a number of them give promise of becoming 
much more prominent in the near future. Silver has 
reached a total value of three-quarters of a million, though 
it has so far been a mere by-product of gold mining. 
Platinum, first traced up by the Geological Survey in 
1925, occurs abundantly in the "Great Dyke" area, and 
the treatment problems which stilled production before, 
in spite of Mr. A. Grainger's valiant efforts at Belingwe, 
should not be insoluble now. That fascinating stone, the 



Southern Rhodhsia 1890-1950 



Pace 109 



Hogarths Grows with Rhodesia 



■ . 




Established 1914) 

Today: The Most Universal Engineering Establishment in the Colony 

HOGARTHS, LTD. 

BULAWAYO STRUCTURAL. REINFORCING, MECHANICAL Salisbury 

P.O. Box 434 ENGINEERS AND FOUNDERS P.O. Box 1670 



'ityavU&OK & *i¥uy&4o*t limited 

AGENTS & DISTRIBUTORS 

Official Sellers of State Lottery Tickets 



* CLEARING & 
FORWARDING 

/ AGENTS 

•• 


* AIRWAYS 
ROOKING 

AGENTS 


Head Office: 

MAIN STREET 
BULAWAYO 


Branches : 

GORDON AVENUE, SALISBURY 
CECIL AVENUE, NDOLA. 


Pace 110 


/ 
Southern- Rhodesia 1890-1950 



diamond, has been worked to some extent, the first 
discovery having been made in the Somabula gravels by 
Mr. A. Moir, who brought it to the notice of Sir John 
Willoughby early in 1905. The latter personally super- 
intended extensive prospecting operations which revealed 
the presence in the wash of* many other precious stones 
which were identified by the writer: they comprised ruby, 
sapphire, chrysobcryl (including catseyc and alexandrite), 
beryl (aquamarine) and topaz, one variety of the last being 
the beautiful "Somabula blue." Actual pipes, like those 
of Kimberley, were discovered near the Bembezi river at 
the beginning of 1908 as the result of a clever bit of pros- 
pecting by Messrs. W. H. Kenny, J- Scott, and H. Withy. 
These did not prove payable, but as we are well within the 
area where rich deposits may be expected to occur, such 
may still be found in the future. 

Turning in quite another direction, arsenic may be 
mentioned as a substance of great value to the farmer in 
the form of dips and insecticides, which hns been produced 
in some quantity. The pioneer in this work was Mr. J. 
Buchanan at Odzi, just after the first great war, and pro- 
duction afterwards took place at Gwanda. Antimony, 
another useful substance which first earned notoriety as 
;i poison, has also appeared on the output returns most 

years since 1907, chiefly from the Gwelo district. Lead has 
never yet been produced on a large scale, but the 
phenomenal prices paid for it of late are causing the 
possibility of putting up smelting plants to be explored 
at more than one locality. Bismuth, a rarer heavy metal, 
may also get further attention in the future. Zinc, though 



expensive to produce, should receive more notice con- 
sidering the extraordinary price at which it has been quoted 
for some time past. Manganese and corundum are lower 
priced minerals of which there has been some small 
production. At present, in spite of their small market 

value, an attractive prospect is also prcsenred by rhe largo 
deposits of such non-metallic minerals as barytes, magnesite, 
fluorspar, phosphates, and vermiculite. not to mention 
our great resources in ores of the most important of all 
the metals, iron. The possibilities of these have not by 
any means received the attention they deserve. Particular 
reference may be made to the two which have been most 
recently discovered, namely phosphates and vermiculite. 
These occur together at Dorowa, first opened up in 1945 , 
vermiculite being much more widely distributed, and since 
found as far away as Wnnkie. The great phosphate deposit 
at Dorowa is reported by the American authority who 
examined it in 1943 to have proved reserves of 17,000,000 
tons, and preparations for large scale production will 
follow the provision of the transport facilities on which 

work is now proceeding. 



ASPHALTERS 


SABI 


(RHODESIA) LTD. 

ASPHALT SURFACING CONTRACTORS 


VERMICULITE 

LTD. 


• 


THE PIONEERS OF RHODESIAN VERMICULITE 


ROADS, DRIVES, INDUSTRIAL SITES, FACTORY FLOORS, 


• 


TENNIS COURTS, Etc. 


MINERS. EXFOLIATORS AND EXPORTERS OF S.R 


• 


VERMICULITE. 


"PROMPT SERVICE" 
is our motto. 


"ROGRO" for agriculture. 
'ROPLASTA" for plastering. 




"ROFIL" for insulation and building. 


OPERATING IN ALL DISTRICTS. 


• 


15 GOLDFIELDS BUILDING. BAKER AVENUE 


GOLDFIELDS BUILDING. BAKER AVENUE 


Tele B hone 23913 P.O. Box 425 


Telephone 23913 P.O. Box 425 


SALISBURY. S. RHODESIA 


SALISBURY. S. RHODESIA 



/ 



WEAKLEY & WRIGHT 



BROKERS 



HOUSE. LAND & ESTATE AGENTS : INSURANCE AGENTS (NORWICH UNION) 
CONSULT US FOR YOUR PROPERTY PROBLEMS 
BASE MINERAL PROPOSITIONS AVAILABLE FOR INVESTMENT 
1, 2. 3, GOLDFIELDS BUILDING, BAKER AVENUE P.O. Box 425 SALISBURY 



MINING AGENTS 



S. BHODESIA 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 111 




fyavUv 



/ 



The history ol the Chartered Company reaily 
began in 1888 when the emissaries of Cecil 
Rhodes succeeded, in the lace ol the opposi- 
tion of rival would-be concessionaires a! Loben- 
gula's Kraal, in obtaining from that Chiel the 
Rudd Concession. 

A Royal Charter granted by Queen Victoria on 
29 October, 1889, enabled the Company to 
exploit that Concession and gave it the right 
to exercise wide powers oi Government and 
development within its sphere of operation, 
should it succeed in obtaining these. 

Less than a year later the Company's Pioneer 
Column, guided by Selous and accompanied 
by Rhodes's friend and lieutenant, Dr. Jameson, 
had made ils way safely into Mashonaland and 
planted the flag at Salisbury, now the Capital 
ci Southern Rhodesia, 

In 1893, after the routing of Lobengula's impts 
end the flight and death of the Chief, Matabele- 
land was occupied; and by agreement with the 
Imperial Government the Company's adminis- 
tration wa3 extended over the whole of what 
is now Southern Rhodesia. 

A vast new province had been added to 

the British Empire without the loss of a 

single soldier of the British regular army or 

the expenditure of a shilling _.. 

o: the British .Taxpayers' j".- J 
money. 

Furthermore, the Company 
v/as able to obtain from 
Lowaniia, the Paramount 
Chief of the Barotse, and from 
ether native rulers in the vast ^J^ 




tract of territory lying between the Zambesi 
on the South and the Lakes Tanganyika and 
Nyasa on the North, a series of concessions 
of extensive land and mineral rights; and having 
thus obtained a foothold the establishment of 
an Administration over what is now Northern 
Rhodesia followed soon afterwards. 

From that time until 1923, when the adminis- 
tration of Southern Rhodesia was handed over 
to a Responsible Government, and until 1924, 
when the administration of Northern Rhodesia 
was assumed by the Imperial Government, the 
history of Rhodesia was the story of the British 
South Africa Company The threefold objects 
which the petitioners for the Charter had set 
before themselves were the establishment of 
British ascendancy in South Central Africa, 
the development of the potential wealth of that 
part of the world and the raising of the lot of 
the native inhabitants. 

As regards the second of these, a summary 
of the mineral production up to the 31st 
August, 1949. illustrates the progress made: 
Southern Rhodesia: Toial value £238,861,993 
(gold £170,377,008; asbestos £32,799,589; coal 
£14,952,399; chrome £13,585,251; copper £5,803,663). 

Northern Rhodesia, up to the 31st July, 1949: 
Total £233,090,435 (copper £197,570,223; lead 

£7,185,171; zinc £10.837.183; 

cobalt £10,721,794; vanadium 

£4,709,850). 

The Chartered Company's 
policy of granting prospecting 
concessions to groups ol com- 
panies, amply provided with 
resources to enable them to 



£ ^« 



i\~yrf& 



First Administrative Building Salisbury 1899 



1'aof. 28 



f 

Southern Rhodesia 1890 1955 



examine, develop and exploit the mineral wealth 
of the country, has been fully justified by 
results. The copper fields of Northern Rho- 
desia, which are among the Empire's most 
valuable resources, were developed and brought 
to production through that means and have in 
a few brie! years led to the establishment of 
a vast industry which is giving wealth and 
security to that territory. The Company dis- 
posed of its mineral rights in Southern Rho- 
desia to the Government of that Colony in 
1933 for the sum of £2.000,000— a purchase which, 
owing to the premium on gold, has proved an 
extremely profitable one for the Colony and 
recently arrangements have been concluded 
with H.M. Government in the U.K. and the N.R. 
Government ior the termination of the Com- 
pany's mineral rights in Northern Rhodesia in 
36 years' time. 

The building of more than 2.500 miles of 
railway, eonnscting Rhodesia with the Union 
of South Africa on the South, the Belgian 
Congo on the North and Portuguese East Africa 
on the East, and the institution of road motor 
services as "feeders'' to that railway system, 
were initiated and completed by capital raised 
on the credit of The British South Africa Com- 
pany and have contributed largely to the open- 



ing up of the territories served, 
ways have now been taken 
over by the Governments con- 
cerned. 

During the whole of the Com- 
pany's existence it has led the 
way in the agricultural and 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS : 

Sir DOUGAL O. MALCOLM, K.C.M.G. 
(President). 

His Grace the DUKE OF ABERCORM. 
K.U., K.P. 

C. HELY-HUTCH1NSOH, Esq. 

A. E. HADLEY, Esq., C.B.E. 

Colonel Sir ELLIS ROBINS, D.S.O., 
E.D. 

Sir EHNEST OPPENHEIMER. 

Lt.-Col. Sir JOHN R. CHANCELLOR. 
G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., D.S.O. 

LEO F. A. d'ERLANGER, Esq. 

P. I. BAIRD, Esq., C.B.E., A.C.A. 



All these rail- 




Charter House, Salisbury, 
Southern Rhodesia. 



pastoral sphere of Rhodesia ... Its citrus 
estates at Mazoe, Premier and Sir.oia; its maize, 
wheal, cotton and forestry enterprises have been 
scientifically developed; it initiated the tobacco 
and cattle industries in Souihern Rhodesia; its 
Milling Company is an undertaking which has 
proved of great assistance to the farmers of the 
country. 

That the third object of the Charter, the rais- 
ing of the lot oi the native inhabitants, has 
been fulfilled cannot be stated better than ir. 
the words used by a Minister of the Crowr. 
who in 1920 described the native administration 
o; Rhodesia to the House of Commons as "a 
model not only in Africa, but for any part of 
the world where you have the very difficult 
problem of the white settler living side by side 
with the native.'' 

A: the end oi this, its first hall-century ol 
existence, the Company can look back upon a 
period of solid achievement. For the first 33 
years its work was solely for the Empire and 
the people of Rhodesia — its shareholders saw 
no material return on their investment. 

Since 1924, the Company has distributed cash, 
dividends and bonuses amounting to £1 16s. 6d. 
per share — not an extravagant reward for the 
patience of those shareholders during a lifo 
of fifty-six years. Rhodesians 
know that the prosperity and 
security of the Rhcdesias are 
still the paramount concern of 
the Company, 



Head Office: 

10 OLD BROAD STREET, 
LONDON, E.C.2. 

Secretary aud CLIcI Accountant; 

W. H. WHITE, Esq. 

Assistant Secretary: 

I. N. KIEK. Esq. 

Resident Director in Africa: 

Colonel Sir ELLIS R03INS, 

D.S.O., E.D. 

Heed Office In Rhodesia: 

CHARTER HOUSE, P.O. Box 364, 

SALISBURY. 

Cruel Accountant in Africa: 

E. S. NEWSON, Esq., A.S.A.A. 

Local Secretary, N. Rhodesia: 

H. St. L. GRENFELL, Esq., M.C. 

Resident Mining Engineer, Ndola: 

H. E. BARRETT, Esq. 

Local Secretary, 3. Rhodesia: 

W. L, SMITH, Esq.. M.3.E. 



THE BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA COMPANY 

(INCORPORATED BY ROYAL CHARTER) 



Southebn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 29 




aaitat 



Hornet of Parliament, London, England, 



The finest car of its class in the world 



The Jaguar is renowned, not only in Britain but throughout the world, 
for its unique combination of elegance and high performance. With its 
vivid acceleration (0 to 50 m.p.h. in 9.8 seconds) go remarkable smoothness 
at high speeds and corresponding freedom from swaying and bouncing. 
Thus long journeys become short journeys and all journeys a joy. Both 
front seats are adjustable for height as well as reach, and no more than 
a flick enables the steering column to be moved to your liking. At 5 or 95 the 
Jaguar heralds its approach with the merest whisper ; and in the deep-seated 
comfort of its real leather upholstery the driver has the magnificent 
feeling that he could steer this car through the eye of a needle. 

SAGER'S MOTORS, LTD. 

Cnr. 10th AVENUE S ABERCORN ST.. BULAWAYO. Telephone No. 2770. P.O. Box 501. 

/ A G V A R DISTRIBUTOR S F O 7? S O I! T II 





Other features of the Saloon and 
Drophead ■ Independent, front 
wheel suspension . Body nf heavy 
gauge steel Milling exceptional 
strength - Slim window pillars 
provide wide visibility - Most 
complete and beautiful instrument 
panel on any ear ■ Air-conditioning 
■ Soft leather upholstery in wide 
choice of colours ■ Drophead can 
be driven half open, fully open 
or dosed . iMvishly equipped, to 
last, detail — no extras. 

PRICES 
O N A PPLICATI N 

E R X ft 7/ O D B S I A 



Page 30 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



THE S T II It V OF 

THE CHARTERED COMPANY 



BY 




SIR DOUGAL O. MALCOLM, K.C.M.G. 
President of the British South Africa Company 



"Having been a Director of the Chartered Company for fully half of a 
long life, and President of it for about a dozen years, I hardly feared the 
charge of trying to teach my grandmother when I agreed to write this article. 
Rather, the ivriter is in the position of lecturing to the rising generation about 
an elderly relative of whom something should already be known. There 
may be some points connected with the old 'lady's' early loves and adventures 
which are not wholly familiar. . . ." 



;; £9g@§$HE CHARTERED COMPANY'S 
8Sir-S@@!?2 ': story, which may he described 
as "The Bride of Rhodes who 
brought his children to birth" or, 
to vary the metaphor, as "his 
chosen instrument for the accom- 
plishment of his great design," 
goes back at least as far as the closing decades of 
the nineteenth century. 







Till then the southern part of the African 
continent had been regarded by the Powers of 
Europe as being valuable only as affording 
places of rest and refreshment on the long sea 
voyage to and from India and the Far East. As 
such, it was indispensable to the mariners and 
explorers of Portugal in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, of the Netherlands in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth, of Great Britain afterwards: it 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 31 




ALFRED BEIT 

Alfred Beit, who was the same age as Rhodes, came to 
Kimberley in 1875 as a diamond buyer, and the (wo 
young men struck up a friendship which was undoubtedly 
one of the great influences in Rhodes's life. Rhodes relied 
on Beit's business instincts, and in the years when 
politics absorbed most of his time, Beit looked after 
his interests. Beit was one of the four principle founders 
of the Dc Beer's Consolidated Mines Ltd., and he 

helped materially in financing the Chartered Company, 
of which he was an original Director. He died in 1906, 
and by his will left a large fortune to be administered by 
Trustees on education and the development of com- 
munications in the two Rhodesias, and this fund has 
provided a large number of scholarships, has built 
school assembly halls, given grants-in-aid to public 
and charitable institutions, constructed numerous low- 
level bridges over rivers, and four great engineering 
works in, the Beit Bridge over the Limpopo, the Luangwa 
River Bridge in Northern Rhodesia, the Birchenough 
Bridge over the Sabi River, and the Otto Beit Bridge 
over the Zambezi at Chirundu. 



is still, as has been made plain to all in the course 
of two great World Wars, of incalculable 
strategic importance. 

But, towards the end of the nineteenth 
century, the discovery of the diamonds of 
Kimberley in the 1870's, and, still more, of the 
world's greatest goldfield on the Witwatersrand 
in 1886, awoke the Powers to the idea that 
South Africa was worth having for its own 
sake — for might not further untold wealth await 
the explorer in the interior? — and the scramble 
for Africa began. 



Two great rivals stood out before all others — 
Great Britain and Germany. Of these, all the 
initial advantages might seem to be with Great 
Britain, which possessed the only two well 
established foci of white civilization at the Cape 
of Good Hope and in Natal; Germany had but 
lately obtained footholds in what arc now 
South-West Africa and Tanganyika. But Great 
Britain was a satisfied Power. It is true that in 
1885 she proclaimed her Protectorate over 
Bechuanaland and thus saved the first stage of 
the road to the North, but beyond that she was 
not prepared to face the difficulties and bear the 
cost of further Imperial expansion, while the 
Government of the Cape Colony sat in comfort- 
able apathy under the shadow of Table Mountain. 

On the other hand, the ambitious parvenu 
Power of Germany was unmistakably anxious to 
extend a broad belt of dominion from South- 
West to East over the savage African tribes 
which lay between, and to establish herself as 
the protector and patron of the little Boer 
republics of the Transvaal and Orange Free 
State. And what sort of a patron was she 
likely to prove? 

To one who had eyes to see, the race was set 
between the British from South to North and 
the Germans from West to East; the stakes no 
less than the domination of the sub-continent 
and with it of the harbours on the long sea 
voyage from Europe to the Red Sea and to the 
Orient. 

Happily, on the British side there was one 
man with the imagination to grasp the reality 
and the magnitude of the issue, and with the 
power and ability to grapple with it. He could 
see that the race must fall to whichever side 
could first establish itself firmly in the territories 
of the Matabele Chief, Lobengula, to the north 
of the Limpopo and in the territories of the 
Barotse and other smaller native peoples to 
the north of the Zambesi; that is to say, in the 
whole of what is now Rhodesia 

That man was Cecil Rhodes, still very young 
but possessed of vast wealth drawn from the 
diamond fields, commanding the resources of 
De Beers Consolidated Mines, and a man who 
carried weight at the Cape and even in London. 

Far in advance of his time in his foresight 
of what a Dominion, as we now call it, might 
be, he tried hard to get the Government of 
his own Colony to move, but in vain. , Very 
well, then; he would shoulder the great task 



Page 32 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 







>' 



The first offices of the British South Africa Company 
at Fort Salisbury. 



himself. For that he must provide himself 
with his own instrument. Commanding none 
of the resources of a Government, he had 
recourse to a traditional agency of Imperial 
development — the merchant adventurers of the 
City of London. He sent his emissaries to the 
kraal of Lobengula, and through 
them obtained from that Chief 
in 1888 a concession over all 
the minerals in his territory, 
coextensive with the modern 
Southern Rhodesia. To work 
that concession he secured, on 
October 29 in the following 
year, through the British Gov- 
ernment from Queen Victoria, 
a Charter of Incorporation for 
the British South Africa Com- 
pany. 

The Charter also authorised 
the Company to obtain and 
work further concessions within 
its ''principal field of opera- 
tions", which covered all the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate and 
Rhodesia of to-day, and to exer- 
cise rights of administration (if 
if should succeed in getting 
them) in regions in which the 
British Government claimed 
,- neither to possess nor to be 



able itself to grant such rights. 

Thus the Chartered Company, 
to call it by its familiar, though 
not strictly its legal, name 



The entrance to Charter House, Salis- 
bury, the Head Office of the British 
South Africa Company in Rhodesia. I 



came into being. It was equipped with funds 
subscribed for its shares by British investors, 
true successors of the merchant adventurers of 
an earlier day. Such men have never yet been 
found timid in backing schemes which, like 
Rhodes's, appeal to the imagination and to the 
patriotic spirit. But these by themselves would 
not have been enough. To subscribe with no 
hope of ultimate gain would have been Quixotic, 
and the investors, like their forebears, had an 
eye to the main chance. Though they would 
have been sanguine indeed if they had looked 
for a quick profit, they naturally hoped for a 
material reward which, though it might be long 
deferred, would be ample; no man has the 
right to grudge it to them. 

Now Rhodes knew well that if he were to 
speak, with Germany in the gate, his footing in 
the promised land must be not only legal but 
effective. Therefore his first step, in 1890, 
was to recruit and equip, at the expense of his 




Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 33 



tor twenty-two years we have catered for 
the needs of the people of this growing 
Country of ours. Faithfully have we en- 
deavoured to serve, and long may we hope 

to do so. 



FOR THE BEST VALUE 

in 

LADIES' AND CHILDREN'S WEAR 

see 

BALLANTYNE & CO. 

FIRST STREET, SALISBURY, SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



/ 



BRAUDE BROS. 

DIRECT IMPORTERS 



Wholesale and Retail Wine, Spirit 
and General Merchants 



Speke Avenue, Salisbury 

TELEPHONE Nos. 21772 TELEGRAMS "BRAUDE" 

PRIVATE OFFICE 21170 P.O. BOX 163 



Page 34 Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Company, a little force of Pioneers and Police, 
as daring a band as those companies of Spaniards 
who first made their way into Mexico and Peru, 
and to send them up into the domain of the 
formidable Lobengula. A very few of them, 
very old men now, still happily survive and are 
rightly held in high honour. 

Guided by the famous big game hunter, 
F. C. Selous, and accompanied and inspired by 
Rhode's lifelong friend, the. late Sir Starr 
Jameson, the Pioneers made their way through 
countless perils and tribulations, but in safety, 
to Fort Salisbury, where they planted the 
Company's flag on September 13, 1890. And 
Rhodes's race with the Germans for what he 
called "My North" was won. 

But it had been, as had been said before in 
an even more famous connection, "a devilish 
close-run thing", and at this point a strategist 
may well pause and ask himself what, if the result 
had been the other way, would have been the 
effects on the World Wars of 1914 to 1918 
and of 1939 to 1945? 

If there be any virtue at all in the "might-have- 
beens" of history, it is as certain as anything 
in such a field can be, that the German power 
would have been standing at all the ports round 
the Cape to the Red Sea, and that, with the 
Mediterranean effectively closed, the North 
African campaigns of Montgomery and 
Alexander, on which the issue of the last awful 
struggle so largely turned, would have been 
impossible. Something is due to the Company 
for that. 

Starting from Salisbury, the Company's tiny 
white settlement, isolated from civilisation by 
vast tracts of savage wilderness across which 
the costs of such communication as was possible 
strained the financial resources of the Company 
to the uttermost, somehow made good. The 
industries of mining and agriculture were 
started, and a simple form of administration 
was set up under Jameson which, after the 
inevitable war with Lobengula and the Matabele 
m 1893, was extended over all Southern Rho- 
desia. 

A great new province had been added to the 
British Empire without the cost of the life of a 
single soldier of the British Army or of a shilling 
of the British taxpayer's money, and the Com- 
pany had done for its country a work which, in 
other circumstances, its country might reasonably 
have been expected to be willing to do for 
itself. 




F. C. Selous, who guided the Pioneer Column to 
Mashonaland. He suggested to Rhodes the line of 
approach, and was, therefore, engaged to guide the 
Pioneer Column to its objective, Mount Hampden, a 
point on the plateau of Mashonaland, named by him at 
an earlier date. He served in the Rebellion of 1896, and 
after that made his home in England, but continued his 
expeditions to various countries in search of natural 
history specimens. At the age of 64, he joined the 
Legion of Frontiersmen, and served in East Africa, 
falling in action on January 4th, 1917. He was the 
author of several books dealing with wild life and travel 
in South and Central Africa. 



The Company's administration survived many 
trials; the ill-fated Raid into the Transvaal of 
1896, the rinderpest and the subsequent Matabele 
and Mashona rebellions of 1896 and 1897, the 
South African War of 1899-1902, and the death 
of Rhodes in that last year. It was recognised 
on all hands as being a good administration, 
well suited to the stage of development which 
the community it served had reached, though 
carried on at a heavy cost to the Company 
itself. 

Nor was it confined to Southern Rhodesia. 
In Northern Rhodesia also, from 1900 to 1910, 
the Company had obtained from Lewanika, the 
Paramount Chief of the Barotse, and from the 
other lesser chiefs to the East and North-East 
of Barotseland, concessions generally similar to 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 35 




ONLY THE BEST TIMBER 

thl ed J n ° ur , own *"?*. ^ used in our workshops for 
and?,^r rS ° f i oiner y. Shop Fronts, Show Cases 
n r<Z* • r™' a ? d , hese Products - produced through 
a "f nchon of ?™«? machinery and expert craffs- 
manship - are of the highest quality, and the prices 
arc competitive with those of imported goods 
The Joinery Department will supply joinery of every 

alwa^nha"? * SPedfiCati ° n ' «* ^ T 2 

SJ^SmS*- De P arfa "ent specialises in shop fronts, 

wan display ^J&tt^&cSr* Sh ° W — 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE WILL BE SENT ON REQUEST 

PREMIER WOODWORKING 

(RHODESIA) LIMITED 

Telegrams: "Lakes." 




/ 




COMFORT ON THE ROAD 

and confidence in your transport is 
the key to a succesful business or 
pleasure trip. We can provide 
that. A fleet of luxurious, post-war 
American Sedan cars is at your 
disposal, to drive yourself, to any 
part of Rhodesia and for any lenath 
of time. s 



Angwa S!./Union Ave.. Salisbury. S. Rhodes, 
Phone 22996 T el. Add.: "RENTACAR 



Page 36 



Southern- Rhodesia 1890-1950 




A. R. Colquhoun, First Administrator, Mashonaland, 
seconded from the Indian Civil Service at the request of 
Rhodes to accompany the Pioneer Column in 1890 and 
start Civil Government in Mashonaland. Died 1914, 
aged 67. 




that which Lobengula had granted in 
On the footing of those concessions, it had 
extended its administration in a simple but 
orderly form — again at very heavy cost to itself, 
though without having to engage in a single 
"little war" — over the whole vast area from the 
Zambesi to the borders of the Belgian Congo 
and of Tanganyika. The evil slave trade had 
been completely suppressed, and the native 
from the Limpopo to the Great Lakes no longer 
quailed in terror of the witch doctor and of the 
hostile assegai. 

So it fell out that at the end of the First World 
War in 1918 the Company stood in an apparently 
great position. It ruled over all Rhodesia. It 
owned all the mineral rights throughout the 
country, and, through its subsidiary Companies, 
a complete system of railways more than 2,000 
miles in length, from Vryburg in the Union of 
South Africa through the Bechuanaland Pro- 
tectorate and Bulawayo northwards to the 
border of the Belgian Congo, and eastwards 
from Bulawayo through Salisbury to the PortU' 
guese port of Beira. But it had never paid one 
penny of dividend to its shareholders. The 
discharge of the duties of administration had 
swallowed up all that might otherwise have been 
profit. And from that year, 1918, the days of 
the Company as a governing authority were in 
reality numbered. 

A report of the Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council had found that the unalienated 
land of Southern Rhodesia belonged not to the 
Company but to the Crown, which was merely 
bound to repay to the Company what it had 
spent out-of-pocket on land management and 
on the administration of the Government. 
Thus, no profit was to be looked for from that 
source. Moreover, the white population of 
Southern Rhodesia had now grown to a number 
and to a degree of prosperity which, they felt, 
justified them in demanding emancipation from 
the tutelage of "Mother Charter" and the 
institution of local Responsible Government. 

To such an arrangement, if the Crown was 
prepared to agree to it, there was no reason 
why the Company from a business point of 



Sir Leander Starr Jameson ("Dr. Jim"), Second Adminis- 
trator of Mashonaland until 1895, and President of The 
British South Africa Company from 1913 to 1917. 
Bom 9th February, 1853. Died 26th November, 1917, 
and buried at the Matopos. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 37 



GATH'S ASBESTOS MINE. 



Photo: Public Relations Dspanmsnl. 



GWELO 

RAIL AND ROAD CENTRE 
OF 

SOUTHERN 
RHODESIA 

AND HUB OF 

MIDLANDS 
INDUSTRY 



A STREET SCENE IN GWELO. Photo: H. Hains 



■.taiu . 





For further information write to :- 
Th<j Secretary, Gwelo and District Publicity Association, 
P.O. Box 212 - - Gwelo - - Southern Rhodesia 

Pace 38 



Gwelo was recognised as a convenient distribu- 
tion point and as early as 1894 a community was 
established on the site. 

1950- 

To-day, Gwelo is the established Midlands Capital, 
and has many social amenities to oifer, plus excel- 
lent manufacturing facilities. In the history of 
Gwelo, we are proud of the prosperous farming 
dnd ranching industries and the gold, chrome and 
asbestos mines which settlers have built up in our 
district, all of which bring valuable revenue to 
the Colony. 

Southern Rhodjsia 1890 1°50 




The Rt. Hon. Earl Grey, G.C.M.G., Third Administrator 
of Mashonaland until the end of 1897. He was one of 
the original directors on the hoard of the Chartered 
Company, and was Vice-President of the Company 
from 1897-1903, when he went to Canada as Governor- 
General. Earl Grey died in 1920. 





Sir Arthur 1-awley, G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., Administrator 
of Mataheleland 1897-1901. 



Sir William Milton, Fourth Administrator of Mashona- 
land, and First Administrator of Southern Rhodesia. 
He came to Mashonaland as Chief Secretary to organize 
Government service in 1896, and succeeded Earl Grey as 
Administrator of Mashonaland in 1898. In 1902, on 
the departure of Sir Arthur Lawley from Bulawayo, 
Sir William Milton became the first Administrator of 
Southern Rhodesia. He died in 1930. 



view should object. Accordingly, after the 
"Devonshire Agreement" of September 29, 
1923, had settled, finally and fairly, a whole host 
of questions in dispute outstanding hetween the 
Crown and the Company, Responsible Govern- 
ment was established in Southern Rhodesia, and 
since that time the Company's position in that 
Colony has been similar to that of any other 
commercial corporation carrying on important 
business in the friendliest relations with the 
local Government. 

A few months later Northern Rhodesia was 
also taken over from the Company and placed 
directly under the British Colonial Office as a 
Crown Protectorate. The relief afforded to the 
Company's finances by these administrative 
changes was immediate; and whereas, as 1 have 
said, it had never previously paid any dividend 
at all, it has continuously, with the single 
exception of the worst "slump" year— 1932 — 
paid dividends, albeit of modest amount, ever 
since the changes took place. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 39 



TURNER & SONS LTD. 

EST 1926 

P.O. Box 1097. Telephone 24910. Telford Road. Light Industrial Sites, 

SALISBURY 

BUILDING CONTRACTORS & JOINERS 



COUNTRY ORDERS 
RECEIVE THE SAME 
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FUL ATTENTION AS 
OUR LOCAL CUS- 
TOMERS. 




ALL BUILDING 
CONSTRUCTION IS 
UNDER THE 
PERSONAL SUPER- 
VISION OF THE 
MANAGING 
DIRECTOR. 



One of :he most modem Joinery Workshops in Salisbury, S.R, 

If you have a Building or Joinery problem, let us solve it; we have specialised for over 24 years to 
the satisfaction of all our clients. Our materials are the best obtainable, which, combined with highly- 
skilled workmanship, makes certain of a first-class job. 



JtdeAMaiitmal $<Pieemmtf 



. . . different countries . . . different customs ... in Rhodesia those who 
know, agree that loelson Bros. Ltd., through their long association in the 
electrical field in Rhodesia, offer the finest value in electrical appliances. 





PREMIER PYLON KETTLE 



British Quality i'roducts 

JOELSON BROS. LTD. 




Box 328 



Salisbury 



Page 40 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



•■■ - - Vi' -i'V'- f f — •» — ■ ' "i'lli'f'JT ' l 1 * c r)-» .i ,inji , i 




Sir Drummond Chaplin, G.B.E., K-C.M.G. Second 
Administrator of Southern Rhodesia from 1914-1923, 
and Administrator of Northern Rhodesia from 1921-1923. 
Resident Director in Africa of the British South Africa 
Company from 1923 until his death in 1933. 



Of the great assets of which the Company 
stood possessed in 1918 the Southern Rhodesian 
Mineral Rights were, in 1937, sold to the 
Government of the Colony at a fair price, freely 
offered by that Government and freely accepted 
by the Company. The Rhodesian Railways 
were similarly sold in 1947. But the Northern 
Rhodesian Mineral Rights remain, and from 
them, thanks mainly to the wonderful develop- 
ments which have taken place in the copper 
mining industry in that territory in recent years 
and to the present high price of copper, the 
long-suffering patience of the shareholders, with 
their enduring faith in the great enterprise of 
Rhodes, is beginning — though only just begin- 
ning — to bring a hoped-for but tardy reward. 

Last year as a result of negotiations with the 
Northern Rhodesia Government it was agreed 
that the Company should continue to enjoy 
its mineral rights until 1986 when they would 
become the property of the Crown, and that as 
from the 1st October, 1949, the Company should 
assign and pay to the Government of Northern 
Rhodesia 20% of the net revenue from their 
mineral rights. 




Last year saw the sixtieth anniversary of the 
signing of the Charter granted to Rhodes, and 
the Company looks forward to playing a part 
in the future development of the Rhodesias 
commensurate with the services it has rendered 
to those Territories in the past. 




., 



Colonel Sir Ellis Robins, D.S.O., E.D., Resident Director 
of the British South Africa Company. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 41 




1350 — Aerial photograph oi Showrooms, Workshops, Service Line and Offices. 

21 YEARS' PROGRESS. Commencing business in a temporary showroom during 1929 With a stall of two Europeans and one 
Cairn; Ltd. has grown into a large concern employing 65 Europeans and 70 Natives, wnile their builainga, cc 
■v-vl-ch™^ Sorvir-P Tins Vehicle. Flectric ADoliances and Spares Showrooms, now cover ten stands (SZ.bUU sq 



Motive Cairns L;d. has grown into a large concern employing 65 Europeans ana W natives, wane ineir U u.,uK.g a , ^ .,- 
prising Workshops, Service Line, Vehicle, Electric Appliances and Spares Showrooms, now cover ten stands (oV.SUU sq. I 



MASHONALAND DISTRIBUTORS lor: 

CHEVROLET Cars and Trucks, VAUXIIALL Cars, BEDFORD Cars. 
BUTCK Cars, GENUINE SPARES lor all G.M, Vehicles, PRICES 
Motorine Oils, ATCO Motor Lawn Mowers, FRIGIDAIRE House- 
hold and Commercial Refrigeration. XCEL Electric Stoves and 
Appliances, HOOVER Washing Machines and Cleaners. 

Cairn* mv>) Itb. 




P.O. Box 103 



SALISBURY 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



Photograph on loll shows Original Stall and Premises. 1S23. 



Page <f2 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




A view of the British South Africa Company's Dam ai Maioe. 









i^e c 



• For the discriminating business executives who advertise 
the integrity of their firms on Fine Office Stationery. 

• On the high standard this industry has reached since ]8S0 
our production is evidence of Rhodesia's progress which 
we are all proud to celebrate. 

You are assured of Fine. Printing when you 
leave your printing problems with us 

THE CENTRAL AFRICAN PRINTING & PURLISHING CO. 

(Partners i K. A. D. Snapper and A. B. Werrett) 
Agent, for THE CENTRAL AFRICAN PUBLICATIONS -:- PUBLISHERS OF "THE RKODESIAN TRIBUNE' 

An informative journal and a fine advertising medium 

P °- B ° X 9 " Mnn °9 e ' : R ' A ' »• Snapper Telophono 23692 

SALISBURY, SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



Southern Rhodesia 18Q0-1QS0 



Page 43 



IKCUIT H.NUfAC'UMAS TO H.H. .1 



NC CfO«CI VI 



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iNJoy 

HUNTLEY & PALMERS 
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bud 




&m 



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Some of ,he mny delicious kinds now ohainobU 

CUSTARD CREAMS • SHORTCAKE 

OSBORNE ■ M.LK AND HO N E Y 

These biscuits and o,h, aiuaaivc kinds including 

CHOCOLATE SHORTCAKE 

ore obtainable in 

CARNIVAL ASSORTED 



ACENTS 
W. C. Mac-Donald & Co. Ltd.. P.O. Box 794 , B U U„. yo . 

W. C. MacDonald & Co. Ltd., P.O. Box j6, Salisbury 
HUNTLEY . PAlMERS LTD „ READ|NG , londoN| ^ 





Page 44 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



JOURMY IJVTO THE WILDS 



It Y 
JESSIE (. LOYE.1IORE 




SSggOR three-quarters of a 

century I have watched Rhodesia 
grow; here are my impressions 
of those early days when mission- 
aries and hunters were the only 
white people to cross the 
Limpopo River. 

months old when, in October, 
18/4, my parents left Zuurbrak Mission Station, 
near Swellendam, in the Cape, to make the long 
journey into Matabeleland. You will realise 
how long that journey was when I tell you, as 
my mother told me, that the family left with 
one four-months-old child and reached our 
destination with the second baby alreadv four 
months old. 

My father had been appointed to Hope 
Fountam Mission, near Bulawayo, and we 
arrived there in December, 1875, having stayed 
at Kuruman Mission for a couple of months 
and then trekking by ox-wagon to King Khama's 
capital, Shoshong, in Bechuanaland, where my 
mother had her second child. Our journey was 
a journey into the wilds. We followed the line 
of least resistance, using roads that were only 
tracks, and when 1 recently retravelled part of 
the way by car, along the Garden Route from 
Swellendam to George and 
over the Montagu Pass to 
Graaff-Reinet, I wondered how 
an unwieldy outfit like a wagon 
and 1 6 ozen had been manipu- 
lated up the steep inclines and 
round the sharp bends and 
across the unbridged rivers. 



ARRIVAL AT 
MATABELELAND 

THERE WERE ONLY 
about 20 white people in 
Matabeleland when we arrived. 
At Inyati, the first mission 
station established in 1859 by 
Dr. Robert Moffat, there were 
two missionaries and two at 
Hop/ Fountain. Bulawayo had 
two or three traders, and even- 
year a few hunters and explorers 
would wend their way into 
the country during the dry 
season and leave again before 
the heavy rains started^ 

Nowadays, providing for a 
long week-end agitates some 
housewives. Fifteen years 




MRS. JESSIE C. LOVEMORE 
"Aunt Jessie" Lov&more is known 
to hundreds of Rhodesians as "the 
Rhodesian who has lived longest in 

the country". In her, visitors find a 
fund of knowledge and anecdote, 
expressed with clarity and humorous 
understanding of the days when trial 
and hardship were c ommonplace. 



before the arrival of the Pioneer Column all 
provisions— which had to be brought from Cape 
I own or Port Elizabeth—were ordered in 
sumoent quantities to last two years! That took 
a lot of concentration and calculation. 

As the missionaries had to make their homes 
in the country, they wasted no time in starting 
to grow food. Both at Inyati and Hope Fountain 
they were able to irrigate enough acres to plant 
wheat, and one of my earliest recollections is of 
seeing my father in the wheat field, leading the 
water among the plants, and later mowing the 
ripe wheat with a scythe, then tying it into 
bundles and stacking it. During the day the 
missionary and his wife were very busy with 
ploughing, gardening, washing, ironing, cookie 
and teaching the children, and it was only after 
supper that they could settle down to readin" 
writing and sewing. 

The natives did not work in the house, but 
tended the cattle, sheep and goats, or du« a 
little bit in the garden. Even in those days they 
seldom worked for more than two or three 
months a year before "resting"! They were 
never paid in money but with cotton blankets, or 
yards of print, or beads. 

When the crops were reaped, 
a smooth, level piece of ground 
would be found and some 
native men would be enticed — 
with strips of calico or tobacco 
— to sit around and beat out 
the grain from the sheaves 
with home-made flails. The 
women, with their round, flat 
baskets would winnow the 
grain from the chaff. 

It was a very graceful per- 
formance as they stood with 
the winnowing baskets held 
high over their heads, shaking 
them gently. The women, like 
the men, preferred payment in 
beads. 

As many of them still are, 
the natives were then very 
superstitious, and when they 
were learning to read they 
were not allowed to take any 
books home, for they might 
have been accused of witch- 
craft and even put to death. 
Later on, when the first three 
or four converts were really 
sincere in their desire' to 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 45 




The @m@ good 
thing they missed 

To the Pioneers, the 
men who founded the 
Rhodesias . . . how re- 
grettable that in their 
fleeting moments of 
relaxation SPA MAZOE 
CRUSH was not avail- 
able to sustain, refresh 
and fortify them in 
their heroic efforts. 



U 




I 



? 






become Christians, the missionaries refrained 
from any ceremony of baptism, as that, too, 
might have had serious consequences. 



"MUTI" 

THE NATIVES VERY QUICKLY TOOK 
to the benefits of being doctored. (Note 
how strong are the comparisons between then 
and now!) The nastier the medicine, the more 
it was enjoyed. Almost every day the missionary 
was busy for two or three hours attending to 
patients. We had no medical missionaries in 
Matabeleland in the early days, but the students, 
when studying for the ministry in England, walked 
the hospitals for six months to gain a little 
knowledge; after that it was a question of 
commonsense . 

One day my mother was horrified when a 
native asked her to sew on a part of his nose. 
His wife and another woman had been fighting, 
and when he tried to stop them the other 
woman had bitten off the piece of nose. He 
had tried, without success, to sew it on with 
some sinew- When my mother told the native 
to await my father's return the next day, he 
became truculent, and it was only after being 
shown a great array of medicine bottles — some 
of which contained poison — that he agreed to 
wait as my mother didn't know which medicine 
to use. The next day the separate piece of nose 
was useless. However, the native's nose healed 
without it, and he stayed at the mission station 
for a month while receiving treatment. At the 
end of that time he demanded payment for having 
stayed ! 

One never knew what the natives would get 
up to. A boy once came along to have a tooth 
pulled; my father took a pair of forceps and, 
having put down his pipe on a nearby stone, 
proceeded to extract the offending tooth. Then 
he noticed that his "client" was putting out his 
foot — the natives could pick up anything with 
their toes — to steal the pipe. 



A DESPOT 

AND NOW LET ME PAINT A LITTLE 
broader picture, filled in with details my 
parents later told me. When the first mission- 
aries arrived, Mzilikasi was King of the Mata- 
beles, followed, on his death, by Lobengula. 
The missionaries were always very courteous to 
the king; after all, it was his country, and they 
were there by his permission. Soon after our 
arrival we went to greet Lobengula at his kraal. 
His wives and his sister, Ncence, were so taken 
with my brother and me — two fat white babies — 
that my mother was afraid they would steal us. 
As we grew older we loved to visit the king's 
kraal, because the women would give us lovely 
chunks of beef which we could grill on the coals 
at our wagon. Both of us could chatter the 
language like natives. 



Lobengula, cruel and ruthless, ruled his people 
with a rod of iron. When he had Ncence 
strangled, because she and her followers were 
becoming too powerful, my father went to point 
out the horror of the deed to the black king. 
Lobengula said, "It was a case of my death or 
hers, and I do not want to die." He acknow- 
ledged that it was cruel, but it was the only way 
to rule. 

Two incidents in 1893 show how his word was 
law. After the Fort Victoria affair, when the 
Matabele, returning from their annual raids, 
had killed some Mashona in the streets of the 
town itself, it was decided to march into 
Matabeleland and occupy it. Lobengula decided 
to flee as the white troops approached. 

Two traders, Fairbairn and Usher, were the 
only white people who had not left the area 
some months before. Before he fled, Lobengula 
told one of his men to look after Fairbairn and 
Usher and to let no one touch them, as he was 
responsible for their safety. Likewise, the 
missionaries' houses were not to be burned. 
When the troops reached Bulawayo the two 
traders were safe. Although some natives 
looted the mission houses, stealing sheets, cur- 
tains, knives, clothes and materials, they did not 
set fire to them — a tribute to the power of a 
king who had already fled. 

Lobengula was a very sick man when he left. 
For years he had suffered from gout, he had 
grown very fat, and he took no exercise. His 
flight in an ox-wagon over the veld, towards the 
Bubi River, must have been a great strain, and 
he died soon after Bulawayo was occupied. At 
one time there were many rumours that Loben- 
gula was Still alive, but when Umjaan, his head 
induna, came to see my father about December, 
1894, he had already taken Lobengula's head 
wife for himself, and he said that Lobengula 
was dead. 



THE FEAST DANCE 

TN FEBRUARY EACH YEAR THE 
JL Matabele celebrated their feast-dance and 
general harvest rejoicings. The indunas met to 
discuss affairs of state with Lobengula, and to 
decide in which direction they would send the 
raiding impis during the dry season. The 
feast-dance lasted a week; many oxen were 
killed and much beer was brewed. One of the 
outstanding ceremonies was the "Great Dance", 
when 10,000 warriors formed in a big flattened 
circle, with Lobengula and his visitors (often 
including the missionaries) on one side. The 
warriors' full-dress consisted of black ostrich 
feather capes and head-dresses, varying according 
to their regiments. 

They carried shields, assegais and knobkerries. 

One warrior then sang in a high-pitched voice, 
reciting, as it were, an epic. He would tell of 
the last raid they had made, how they had killed 
many men, had taken many cattle and slaves. 
After each sentence he would pause, and the 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 47 



become Christians, the missionaries refrained 
from any ceremony of baptism, as that, too, 
might have had serious consequences. 



"MUTI" 

THE NATIVES VERY QUICKLY TOOK 
to the benefits of being doctored. (Note 
how strong are the comparisons between then 
and now!) The nastier the medicine, the more 
it was enjoyed. Almost every day the missionary 
was busy for two or three hours attending to 
patients. We had no medical missionaries in 
Matabeleland in the early days, but the students, 
when studying for the ministry in England, walked 
the hospitals for six months to gain a little 
knowledge; after that it was a question of 
commonsense . 

One day my mother was horrified when a 
native asked her to sew on a part of his nose. 
His wife and another woman had been fighting, 
and when he tried to stop them the other 
woman had bitten off the piece of nose. He 
had tried, without success, to sew it on with 
some sinew- When my mother told the native 
to await my father's return the next day, he 
became truculent, and it was only after being 
shown a great array of medicine bottles — some 
of which contained poison — that he agreed to 
wait as my mother didn't know which medicine 
to use. The next day the separate piece of nose 
was useless. However, the native's nose healed 
without it, and he stayed at the mission station 
for a month while receiving treatment. At the 
end of that time he demanded payment for having 
stayed ! 

One never knew what the natives would get 
up to. A boy once came along to have a tooth 
pulled; my father took a pair of forceps and, 
having put down his pipe on a nearby stone, 
proceeded to extract the offending tooth. Then 
he noticed that his "client" was putting out his 
foot — the natives could pick up anything with 
their toes — to steal the pipe. 



A DESPOT 

AND NOW LET ME PAINT A LITTLE 
broader picture, filled in with details my 
parents later told me. When the first mission- 
aries arrived, Mzilikasi was King of the Mata- 
beles, followed, on his death, by Lobengula. 
The missionaries were always very courteous to 
the king; after all, it was his country, and they 
were there by his permission. Soon after our 
arrival we went to greet Lobengula at his kraal. 
His wives and his sister, Ncence, were so taken 
with my brother and me — two fat white babies — 
that my mother was afraid they would steal us. 
As we grew older we loved to visit the king's 
kraal, because the women would give us lovely 
chunks of beef which we could grill on the coals 
at our wagon. Both of us could chatter the 
language like natives. 



Lobengula, cruel and ruthless, ruled his people 
with a rod of iron. When he had Ncence 
strangled, because she and her followers were 
becoming too powerful, my father went to point 
out the horror of the deed to the black king. 
Lobengula said, "It was a case of my death or 
hers, and I do not want to die." He acknow- 
ledged that it was cruel, but it was the only way 
to rule. 

Two incidents in 1893 show how his word was 
law. After the Fort Victoria affair, when the 
Matabele, returning from their annual raids, 
had killed some Mashona in the streets of the 
town itself, it was decided to march into 
Matabeleland and occupy it. Lobengula decided 
to flee as the white troops approached. 

Two traders, Fairbairn and Usher, were the 
only white people who had not left the area 
some months before. Before he fled, Lobengula 
told one of his men to look after Fairbairn and 
Usher and to let no one touch them, as he was 
responsible for their safety. Likewise, the 
missionaries' houses were not to be burned. 
When the troops reached Bulawayo the two 
traders were safe. Although some natives 
looted the mission houses, stealing sheets, cur- 
tains, knives, clothes and materials, they did not 
set fire to them — a tribute to the power of a 
king who had already fled. 

Lobengula was a very sick man when he left. 
For years he had suffered from gout, he had 
grown very fat, and he took no exercise. His 
flight in an ox-wagon over the veld, towards the 
Bubi River, must have been a great strain, and 
he died soon after Bulawayo was occupied. At 
one time there were many rumours that Loben- 
gula was Still alive, but when Umjaan, his head 
induna, came to see my father about December, 
1894, he had already taken Lobengula's head 
wife for himself, and he said that Lobengula 
was dead. 



THE FEAST DANCE 

TN FEBRUARY EACH YEAR THE 
JL Matabele celebrated their feast-dance and 
general harvest rejoicings. The indunas met to 
discuss affairs of state with Lobengula, and to 
decide in which direction they would send the 
raiding impis during the dry season. The 
feast-dance lasted a week; many oxen were 
killed and much beer was brewed. One of the 
outstanding ceremonies was the "Great Dance", 
when 10,000 warriors formed in a big flattened 
circle, with Lobengula and his visitors (often 
including the missionaries) on one side. The 
warriors' full-dress consisted of black ostrich 
feather capes and head-dresses, varying according 
to their regiments. 

They carried shields, assegais and knobkerries. 

One warrior then sang in a high-pitched voice, 
reciting, as it were, an epic. He would tell of 
the last raid they had made, how they had killed 
many men, had taken many cattle and slaves. 
After each sentence he would pause, and the 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 47 



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Page 48 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



The Rev. Chas. D. 
servants. 



10,000 warriors would stamp 
twice with their feet. Around 
their legs they had strings of 
"parchment" cases (they were 
really cocoons from which the 
grubs had been extracted and 
replaced with a few tiny pebbles), 
and when they stamped the 
rattling noise was awe-inspiring. 
When the epic was finished, the 
dancers would shuffle closer and 
closer, then widen out again, 
using a sort of war cry. The 
king would walk along the ranks, 
carrying an assegai; halting, he 
would hurl the assegaaai in the 
direction in which the annual 
raids would take place. 

All 89 of the king's wives 
would be present, wearing full, 
short skirts of tanned sheepskins 
and necklaces and armlets of 
pink beads, which only the royal 
family were allowed to wear. 
Like the men, they were bare 
above the waist, apart from 
some ornaments. The head wife 
would walk up and down before the king, 
voicing a few grumbles. Until the great fiesta 
week was over no one was allowed to eat any of 
the new season's crops of green mealies, marrows 
or sugar cane. 



FAITH IN THE MISSIONARIES 

WHEN CECIL RHODES SENT MAGUIRE, 
Rudd and Thompson to get from 
Lobengula the mineral rights of" Mashonaland, 
the emissaries asked my father to be present at 
every meeting, for they knew that Lobengula 
had implicit faith in the missionaries. Lobengula 
never signed any document unless my father had 
read it over to him. Neither understanding nor 
speaking English, he relied on interpreters — all 
the missionaries were very good linguists — and 
said that the missionaries had never lied to him. 



TREKKING SOUTH 

EVERY TWO YEARS THE MISSIONARIES 
took it in turn to trek down south, to attend 
jEhe mission meetings at Kuruman and to collect 
the fresh supply of provisions. It was felt, too, 
that two years' loneliness in the wilderness was 
enough for anyone, and that a little social life 
would benefit everybody. Those journeys were 
made by ox-wagon, so I want to describe the 
wagon and how we lived in it. 

The wagon-journey was a joy and a glorious 
picnic to the children, but the mother was never 
so enthusiastic. A lot of thinking was needed 




Helm and Mrs. Helm with some of their devoted African 
This photograph was taken about 1908 or 1909. 



to pack and stow enough clothes for a family 
for six months. The wagon was 21 feet long 
and 4 feet 6 inches wide, with a tent, or hood, 
about 6 feet high. One could stand and dress 
with ease. About the middle of the wagon a 
double-beds pring mattress was tied to the tent, 
to be used by the parents, who could sit in it 
without bumping their heads on the hood. 
Behind it was slung a smaller double-bed frame, 
for the small fry; we bigger children used to 
sleep below it, on the floor of the wagon. 
Things were fairly cramped, but that was 
unavoidable. These "beds" filled about 12 or 
13 feet of the wagon's length. The space at the 
front was where we sat when trekking, perched 
on wooden boxes in which were packed the 
clothes and provisions. At the very front, 
across the width of the wagon, was the "voor- 
kist" (the "front chest") on which sat the driver. 
Into this "voorkist" were fitted eight empty 
paraffin tins, containing crockery, cutlery, table 
cloths and the food for daily use. 

The time of trekking had to be arranged so 
that we would get to water about 8 a.m., and 
there we would stay until 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon. Then we would trek until 6 p.m., 
when we would halt for supper and put the 
babies to bed. 

At 8 o'clock we would inspan and travel until 
11 p.m. or a little later, sleeping until between 
four and five o'clock, and arriving at the river 
or vlei for breakfast. All the way along the 
road there was water every 12 to 20 miles. The 
pace of the ox with a loaded wagon is two miles 
an hour — which is just as well, because without 
springs and on the rough road we would never 
have been able to stand more rapid bumping. 



Southern Rhodesia I890-l°5O 



Page 49 



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Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



OUTSPAN 

AS SOON AS WE OUTSPANNED IN THE 
early morning a big tarpaulin would be 
stretched from the wagon roof to the ground, 
to form a "room." Folding tables and chairs 
were put up, mats were laid, and we were ready 
for the day. We always had a hot meal at midday, 
cooked over an open fire. We baked bread, 
made cakes, and generally carried on as though 
we were in a house. Our routine was only 
varied when we came to stretches where lions 
were encountered, as between the Macloutsie 
and Shashi Rivers. There we dared not trek at 
night. 

With darkness, the oxen were tied to their 
yokes and the front yoke was pegged firmly to 
the ground. Oxen do not lie down all night; 
they are restless, they move about, lie down, 
•stand up, and so on. The native boys used to 
light huge fires right round the wagon and the 
oxen, and they took good care that those fires 
were kept going. 

That famous hunter, Frank Selous, said that 
when he was out hunting and was in country 
where he could not get enough wood for a fire, 
he used to tie about a dozen pieces of white 
cloth to trees around his camp, and he was never 
troubled hv lions. 



J* 



THE RETURN 

COMING BACK FROM THE SOUTH, WE 
usually brought a few fowls, ducks, turkeys 
and even some small pigs with us. Slung under 
the back of the wagon was a slatted wooden 
contraption, on which we could put the various 
small crates containing the poultry and animals. 
When we outspanned in the morning, the crates 
were taken down and the birds and animals let 
out. 

When it was time to inspan, the wagon driver 
used to crack his long whip, to call the boy who 
was herding the oxen some distance away. We 
would then collect the livestock, at first having 
quite a job in catching them. Rut it was remark- 
able how, in a few days, they began to associate 
the cracking of the whip with their return to 
the crates, and they would come running and 
get in of their own accord. 



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& SON LTD. 

SALISBURY 



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Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pagk 51 



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Pagf 112 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




1 \ IMi I II 1 1 II 

SAVAGERY 



THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE 
NATIVE OF SOUTHERN RHODESIA 

by 

N. H. D. SPICER 



; &M#£$\ HOS¥ ' OF us WHO HAVE NOT 

watched with our own eyes the changes 
which six decades have wrought in the 
native people of Southern Rhodesia 
may be excused for failing sometimes to 
appreciate how great and how sudden — 
for is not 60 years bin a moment in 
eternity? — has been the transformation 
from unbridled savagery to their present 
state. It is not always easy to remember that the grand- 
fathers — in some cases even the fathers — of our wagon- 
drivers, our houseboys, our labourers, our delivery-boys 
or our office messengers, were the warriors of Lobengula's 
regiments, the fighting men of Gungunyana's impis, or — 
less happily — members of neighbouring tribes liable at 
any moment to become the target lor terrifying and bloody 
raids at the whim of one or other of the black rulers who 
held sway between the Limpopo and the Zambesi. 

In little more than half a century the armies of these 
native potentates have come to be thought of rather as 
legendary hosts than as the forces oi historical characters. 
Gone arc the military regalia, the plumed head-dresses, the 
ox-hide shields, the diverse colours of which denoted 
different regiments ; gone are the ankle-rattles, the fluttering 
wisps of animal hair at knee and elbow, the head-rings 
and the assegais. Save when, with the approval of Author- 
ity, such things have been revived merely for display on 
some great occasion, they have scarcely been seen since 
the fall of Lobengula over half a century ago. More 
slowly but no less surely have passed or are passing many 
of the customs and traditions associated with the civil and 
domestic lives of the native people of those early days. 
Habits and beliefs which governed their lives from birili 
*to death and rhrough which spiritual influence was believed 
to affect the living, even from beyond the grave, have 
either disappeared or ore still in process of modification. 



EFFECTS OF OCCUPATION 

UNTIL THE ARRIVAL OF THE PIONEERS, 
outside influences by occasional hunters, traders, 
explorers or missionaries had made but slight and for the 
most port transitory impressions on the people of the 
kraals with which they had come into contact. The 





Matabele warriors in Lobengula's time 



formal occupation a{ the country, however, marked the 
advent of a new era in which the clash of civilisation and 
barbarism resulted at once and inevitably in the suppression 
of many of the practices^ which, for generations, had been 
part of the daily life of the native inhabitants. It is as 
regrettable now as it was inevitable then that the abolition 
of those customs and practices which were intolerable to 
civilisation should have involved also the sweeping away 
of much that was not only harmless but was sometimes 
even commendable, owing to its suitability to the native 
way of life. 



EVIL PRACTICES 

A 6" INSTANCES OF CUSTOMS AND BEHAVIOUR 
so repugnant to the outlook of the new authority 
that immediate measures for their suppression had to be 
taken may be mentioned twin- killing, the pledging ol 
young girls and the activities of witch-finders. \X/hile 
practices such as these could obviously not be countenanced, 



SoLTiiiiKN Rhoofsia 1890 1 950 



Page 113 




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Phone 24971. 



Page 114 



Southern- Rhodesia 1890-1950 



their termination had ii profound 
effect — but not always the desired 
effect— upon the people concerned. 

The mere fact that twin-killing 

was made illegal did nothing to allay 

the tears of the parents or of the 
communities among which these 
"freaks", for as such they were 
regarded, were permitted to survive. 
The superstitions which had de- 
manded the destruction of twins at 
birth were not lessened by the 
passing of a new law and often remain- 
ed sufficiently strong to outweigh the 
fear of punishment, so that for many 
years prosecutions for twin-murder 
were by no means rare, and it is safe 
to suppose that those that came to 
light were but a small proportion of 
those which actually took place. 

To-day, though superstitious fear is 
doubtless still a potent factor in the 
less enlightened areas, the recording 
of the birth of all twins, a certain 
interest evinced by the authorities in 
their progress, and the probability 
that some informer who has outgrown 
his elemental fears would report 
any untoward happening, all tend 
towards the ultimate elimination of 
the practice. 

Almost as objectionable by our 

standards was the custom of pledging 
young girl children to some in- 
congruous and probably quite un- 
acceptable suitor. This,' too, had to 
be slopped, and so the marriage of a 
girl to a man she was unwilling to 
wed became an offence against the 
law. It is true enough that there are 
probably still many cases where the 
girl does not protest against the 
union for fear of subsequent reprisals 
at the hands of her family, but as a 
regular custom the practice' has almost 
disappeared. At the same time, 
while prohibition of the custom was 

the only possible method of dealing with (he evil, and while 
by now any embarrassment that may have been occasioned 
to -some heartless father seeking to improve the family 
fortunes at the expense of an unwilling daughter will have 
disappeared, there must have been many cases where the 
internal econom.es of families who had budgeted, quite 
legitimately in the light of earlier practices, were seriously 
upset, iney were cases in which, for instance, a father 
or guardian sought to extinguish some debt, or to guarantee 
the fulfilment of some obligation by pledging a daughter 
to (he creditor. B 



WITCHDOCTORS AND CHIEFTAINS 

A L .-'5 OU L GH *f THE TIME OF THE OCCUPATION 
J. lot Southern Rhodesia scarcely a century had passed 
since, even in enlightened England, belief in witches and 
witchcraft had flourished in many neighbourhoods, 
drastic and necessary legislation was introduced with a 
view to the destruction of the witchcraft cult in the Colony. 
iNefessary as such measures undoubtedly were, the effect 
orf the people of the removal of a powerful system to 
which they had been wont to fly when assailed by the 
tears and misfortunes which they had been used to associate 
with the supernatural must have been disturbing in the 
extreme. The aggregate of distress and misgivings suffered 
by the masses on being deprived of the services of the 
family witchdoctor, their one comfort and defence against 
all supernatural ills may well have outweighed the ills of 
those who would have suffered under a continuance of 
trie system. A traditional refuge had been removed and 
no alternative acceptable to the people had been provided 




MR. N. H. D. SPICER. 

Thirty-two years' service in Southern 
Rhodesia's Native Department, of 
which the last six (1936-1942) were 
spent as Native Commissioner, Salis- 
bury, entitle Mr. N. H. D. Spicer to 
write with accuracy about the 
African's changing role in Rhodesia. 
The interest Mr. Spicer has taken in 
the African is shown in his role of 
Editor of NADA, the Native Affairs 
Department Annual, which is, regret- 
tably, too little known outside the 
Colony. 



Neither the white-man's gods nor his 
attempts to laugh them out of their 
superstitions were sufficient, at that 
time, to convince the people that 
there was no need for a witch-doctor 
In their midst. 

As has been suggested already, the 
reorganisation of the culture of a 
conquered people— especially of an 
uncivilised people— to conform to 
the standards of the conquerors too 
often results in the loss of much that 
was good in the older regime. It 
seems almost inevitable that in the 
process of destroying unwanted or 
undesirable habits and customs much 
that is commendable should also 
perish. 

As a further example, there is the 
regrettable loss of the powers once 
wielded by native chiefs, powers 
which more recent policy has sought 
to restore in some degree at least. 
Immediately after the occupation and 
during the early installation of ad- 
ministrative machinery, the co-opera- 
tion of the chiefs and their elders 

could scarcely have seemed a matter 
of very great importance. In con- 
sequence, they received little more 
than nominal recognition, and the 
removal of their powers of punish- 
ment so undermined their authority 
that their influence with their people 

waned until, with rare exceptions, 
the new generations began to snap 
their fingers in the faces of (hose at 
whose voices they would once have 
trembled. 

The regrettable lack of respect so 
noticeable among many of the 
younger Africans to-day, and the 
absence of discipline in the younger 
men and women of the 



.„...*,.. „, Jic race un- 
doubtedly had its first cause in a 
realisation that a relaxation of the 
standard of deference once due to 
their own chiefs and headmen met with no serious rebuke 
Such behaviour quickly developed into a bad habit. 

It is perfectly true that the new regime provided certain 
protection tor the dignity of the chiefs and granted them 
subsidies (the adequacy of which is questionable); it also 
enumerated offences against chiefs for which certain pains 
and penalties were provided. These, however, so far as 
the chief s authority was concerned, were poor substitutes 
tor the old powers of life and death and the summary 
and drastic punishments which could be visited upon 
offenders on the spot. Recent tendencies have been in 
direction of re-establishing some of the lost dignity and 
restoring something of the lost: power, but it has long been 
apparent that the rebuilding of the tribal system, where it 
is not already beyond repair, will take much longer than 
did its original destruction. 



NATIVE FARMING METHODS 

A/fUCH HAS BEEN SAID AND MORE WRITTEN 
, iu ol th . c natlve s wasteful methods of agriculture, of 
his nomadic system of growing his cropS) f his indi 
crimmate destruction of his trees, and of the overstocking 
ot his gra;ing areas. Today, an appropriate department 
is dealing with the first two ot these objectionable methods 
Iheevd of overstocking has been preached unceasingly 
by (he Department of Native Affairs ever since the earlv 
years of the century. Latterly, these sermons, combined 
With some measure of compulsion, introduced for the 
ultimate and greater good of the native community, have 
resulted in considerable de-stocking in manv areas - 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page II: 



KeanmaC 

(SALISBURY) LTD. 

Precast Concrete Manufacturers 

-k 

100% RHODESIAN ENTERPRISE 

KITCHEN SINKS, TERRAZO 
ALL TYPES OF CEMENT BUILDING PRODUCTS 
FIREPLACE MANUFACTURERS AND DESIGNERS 
DUNTEX ROOF TILES AT GWELO & UMTALI 

Box 283, Phone 9-33 Box 1493. Phone 22561 Box 10. Phone 491 

UMTALI SALISBURY GWELO 



KABOT BROS. LTD. 

ENGINEERS AND MANUFACTURERS 

• Sheet Metal Work, Ducting and 
Special Fittings. 

• Diamond Mesh Fencing. 

• Gates and Cattle Troughs. 

• Soil Conservation Equipment. 
/ • Divans and Bedsteads. 

• Kay co Tested Trek Chains. 

P.O. Box 261 Bulawayo 

Pace 116 Southern Rhodesia 1890- 




Trumpeters of the B.S.A. Police. 



It must not be supposed, however, that the native's 
reluctance to reduce his cattle holdings numerically is ho 
more than a pig-headed refusal to take the advice of those 
who know what is best for him. Cattle, as most of us 
know, arc the native's banks. The progeny are the interest 
on his fixed deposit. The most important role which 
such wealth is called upon to play, apart from an occasional 
sacrifice to the spirits of his ancestors, is that of lobola. 

For years the native cattle owner has been urged to 
reduce his cattle holdings numerically and to put his 
money into fewer but better grade animals. "'Look here", 
we say, "you have 60 head of cattle, poor creatures for the 
most part worth perhaps 50 shillings each. One hundred 
and fifty pounds' worth of stock trying to graze a living 
off a few inadequate acres of rather indifferent veld! Now, 
if you had 10 animals worth fifteen pounds apiece, your 
bank balance would be the same and the grazing, inadequate 
lor 60, would suffice for 10 and would even support a 
few head increase." 

All of this is true and sound enough, until the necessity 
lor/i sacrifice arises. A beast must be slaughtered. It is 
al.Kvery well to take one-sixtieth part of a herd, a mere 

trifle of two pounds ten's worth, to appease the disgruntled 
spiric of some offended ancestor, but to take one-tenth 
of a man's wealth for such a purpose, well — a single killing 
may cost as much ns a lifetime of sacrifices under the old 
economy. 

A yet greater difficulty arising from the numerical 
reduction of herds is to be found in the lobola aspect. In 
a family where there may be several sons, brothers, 



nephews or others for whom in the somewhat complicated 
but quite definite customs of succession lobola must be 
provided, there might well be no more than one or two 
beasts left over from a large herd by the time all obligations 
have been met. A herd of a mere do.cn or so would not 
provide enough beasts to go round. 



LOBOLA SYSTEM 

pASSING FROM THE QUESTION OF LOBOLA 
*■ cattle to the lobola system itself, this long-delayed 
tendency on the part of the native to accept and to do 
something about the idea of reducing his cattle holdings 
is — morally- - perhaps something of an unhealthy sign. 
It seems possible that this acceptance has come about, 
not entirely because he has seen the light in regard to this 
matter but to some extent because the lobola aspect— that 
is, the cattle part of the lobola consideration — is no longer 
an essential feature of the transaction. With the complete 
disappearance of cattle (once almost the sole consideration 
and later the main consideration, augmented by some cash 
payment), one cannot help fearing that lobola. at one 
time a traditional token of sincerity and an incentive to a 
continuance of the union of the families, may have sunk 
finally and entirely to the level of mere purchase price. 
That this has been the position, for many years, and 
certainly in a great number of cases, in and around the 
cities and the larger industrial centres has been a regrettable 
but undoubted fact. The deterioration of lobola, from 
bride-price in its best sense to purchase-price pure and 
simple, in the less sophisticated rural areas is a matter 
which must cause uneasiness to the older generation, 
whether of native administntors or of the natives them- 
selves. 



EFFECTS OF CIVILISATION 

npHE FOREGOING ASPECTS OF NATIVE AFFAIRS, 
-*- the customs and the habits which time has so greatly 
affected, do not, perhaps, come to the notice of the man- 
in -thc-street or if they do they may seem to him, with 




Men of the Rhodesian African Rifles practise stripping a 

Bren while blindfolded. 



Southern Rholslsia 1890-1950 



Page 117 



/ 



PIONEER CLOTHING 



FACTORY 



P.O. Box 76 Phone 21607 75 MOFFAT STREET SALISBURY S.R. 

Makers of High Grade Clothing for European and Native Trade 



WORSTED FLANNELS 
WORKING TROUSERS 
KHAKI TROUSERS 
OVERALLS 
PYJAMAS 




KHAKI SHORTS 
SHIRTS 

GABERDINE 

TROUSERS 

YOUTH SHORTS 



THE GARMENT OF DISTINCTION 



SOUTH AFRICAN REPRESENTATIVES : 

MESSRS. PARAMOUNT AGENCIES 

P.O. Box 2499 Phone 22-9030 IOHANNESBURG 




RHODESIA HARDWARE & TIMBER COMPANY LTD. 

UMTALI 

Stockists of : 

BUILDERS' HARDWARE. HARD & SOFT WOODS. JOINERY. 

PAINT & DISTEMPERS, ETC. WROUGHT IRON WARE. 

TOOLS & CABINET MAKERS' FITTINGS. 

Also 



HARDWOOD IN TRUCK LOADS ex P.E.A. SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 
MUKWA, MAHOGANY, MAFAMUTI, ETC. 



Prices on Application. 



Enquiries Welcomed. 



P.O. Box 246 



MAIN STREET, UMTALI 



Phone 435 
1 



Page 118 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




certain exceptions, ot little importance and less interest. 
There are. however, many matters in which yet greater 
changes have occurred in less time than the 60 years 
which have marked those others which have been 
mentioned. 

These are the changes in the way of lite, if not of the 
whole people, at least of that vast proportion — the urban- 
ised natives and all those in regular contact with 
Europeans — whose needs have grown so incredibly in the 
matter of three generations. Sixty years ago practically 
every penny earned was pin-money. A few- skins and an 
occasional sack sufficed for a man's wardrobe. He had 
acquired no fancy tastes in the matter of food. His time 
was his own and his legs were good enough to carry him 
upon such journeys as he was called upon to undertake. 
Beyond his annual tax he was not required to make any 
other contribution, direct or indirect to the revenue of the 
community. 

How different is the position to-day ! In addition to the 
annual poll tax, there arc dog tax and a number of financial 
obligations to the community in which he resides. There 
is clothing to be bought and replaced from time to time. 
Bread and flour, tea and sugar, candles and calico and 
numerous other items have become essentials in the homes 
of many Africans. A bicycle has become as much a 
necessity to the average native as a wireless-set or a motor 
car to the average European. 



Sixty years ago, a few skins and an occasional sack 
sufficed for the African's wardrobe — today, in the matter 
of three generations, the demands of the urbanised 
Africans have grown incredibly, and the bride and 
bridegroom in this picture have followed European 
fashions . 




Here, then, we are faced with a picture of a people 
whose needs have increased ten-fold but whose aptitude 
for service has scarcely improved in the past 60 years. 
They are a people floundering between barbarism and 
civilisation, missing, unconsciously perhaps, the comfort 
of strange customs which served to give strength to their 
forefathers in the times of their adversity, and not yet 
sufficiently impressed by European standards to derive 
stability and comfort from adopting them. 



African workers in a clothing factory in Bulawayo. 

Under European instruction and supervision, many 

become highly skilled. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pack 119 




Ch 



* £• 



ears 



Everyone welcomes Bovril. It has been 
a national favourite for more than half 
a century and is as popular as ever 
today. There's nothing like a cup of hot 
Bovril to take away that chilly feeling. 
Its cheering glow warms vou through 
and through. It tastes delicious too, for 
/Bovril has the rich flavour of prime lean 
beef in all its concentrated goodness. 





"Co-operation like this 

makes things happen fast!" 



"I'd ))o lost without the services of my locai 
B.O.A.O. Appointed Agent. He's the chap — 
multiplied 3,500 times throughout the world 
— who saves me hours of preliminary 
planning. 

^ , f Fes, my Agent makes things happen in a 

II Y hurry. And he knows the answers to all my 

' riddles about currency restrictions, baggage 

allowances, visas and regulations. 1 give him my itinerary 
and leave ihe details to him. He handles everything without 
fuss or cunfusiou. All I <3o is pack a bag and leave on schedule.' 
This same Spcedbird efficiency, this same concern for your 
comfort ftnd pica-sure, applies wherever you mav flv along 
i 50,000 miies of B.O.A.C. routes to forty-two countries on 
five continents. The flight itself is swift and sure — comfortable, 
too. Yon enjoy complementary meals, 
and there are no extras (or the countless 
attentions and courtesies that make 
your journey so much more enjoyable. 
It's all part of B.O.A.C. 's 31 -year-old 
tradition of Speeribird service and experi- 
ence. 




CHEAT IJKITAIN . USA . BERMUDA . CANADA . MIDDLE EAST 
WEST AFRICA . EAST AFRICA . SOUTH AFRICA . PAKISTAN . INDIA 
CEYLON . AUSTRALIA . SEW ZEALAND . FAR EAST . JAPAN 



B.O.A.C. TAKES GOOD CARE OF YOU 







Page 120 



31 FLY »B0 AC 



Information &■ Bookings : South African Airways and B.O.A.C. 
Southern Africa Headquarters, Maritime House, Loveday Street. 
Johannesburg, or from Booking Agents in all cities. 

AIO/SR 

BRITISH OVERSEAS AIRWAYS CORPORATION WITH S.A.A/ O.E.A. AND T.E.A.l) 



Southern Rhodesia 1S9O-I950 







1934: A Westland Wessex flying over the Victoria Falls. This aircraft, hired by RANA from Imperial Airways 
to cope with the increasing traffic was later replaced by the Rapide. 

WIMS OVER RHODESIA 

A BACKWARD GLANCE AT CIVIL AVIATION IN THE RHODESIAS AND NYASALAND 

by 
A. DENDY RAWLINS 



ir\"2'7 WAS THE YEAR WHlCH SAW THE 

I w "S "S first serious attempt to launch regular air line 

-^ services within the Rhodesias and Nyasaland. 

Already a number of adventurous spirits had bee" 
blazing trails across the African skies and the "Hercules" 
and "Atalantas" of Imperial Airways were lumbering over 
the illimitable bush maintaining the first regular services 
between the old country and South Africa. 
JUne time was now ripe for 

Southern Rhodesia to step 

into the picture and take her 
part in the great developments 
which were revolutionising 
transport and travel through- 
out the world. After certain 
negotiations the Beit Trustees 
came forward with a hand- 
some offer of financial assist- 
ance ; Imperial Airways 
agreed to provide expert 
operational management and 
so, in August, 1933, there 
came into being — Rhodesian 



and Nyasaland Airways 
and wide as "Rana". 



Ltd— s 



to be k n 



own far 



Ctxptain A. T)endy Rawlins was associated with 
civil aviation in Rhodesia for many years, and 
was one of the first persons to be engaged by 
R.A.N.A. when this organisation was formed. 
He served as traffic superintendent and was later 
transferred to S.R.A.F. Communications Squadron 
as adjutant. He continued under S.R. Air 
Services and Central African Airways Corpora- 
tion until his retirement in 1948. 



INCEPTION OF RANA 

UNDER THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF COLONEL 
(now Sir) Ellis Robins of the British South Africa 
Company, and with Captain G. I. Thompson. D.F.C. of 

Imperial Airways as Oper- 
ations Manager, chc newly 
formed Compnnv lost no 
time in starting the formid- 
able tasks which lay ahead. 
In Bulawayo about this time 
some enterprising gentlemen, 

prominent among whom 

were Mr. Harry Issels and 
the late Mr. Aston Redrup, 
had formed the Rhodesian 
Aviation Company. Rana 

acquired the R.A.G; as a 
going concern with its fleet 
of single engine aircraft 



Soi.thhkm Rhodesia 1890-19>0 



Pace 121 




Page 122 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 






comprising Puss Moths and a Fox Moth. When we 
consider the magnitude and complexity of the operations 
conducted to-day by Central African Airways, Rana's 
lineal descendant, it is interesting to glance back at the 
small beginnings from which the larger organisation sprang. 
Two tiny offices in Stanley Avenue almost opposite 
Pockets Tea Room housed the young Company and here 
Captain Thompson with one assistant and one typist set 
about the problem of providing the Rhodesias and 
Nyasaland with their first official intcr-tcrritorial mail and 
passenger Air Services. As regards pilots — Rana's opening 
batsmen were two young men whose names were soon 
to become household words in the three territories- 
Miles Bcrwker and Mike Pearce. The war, unhappily, 
claimed the former but Mike Pearce is still with us, 
now as Superintendent, Flying, to Central African Airways. 
To these two was soon added a third, Reg. Bourlny. Just 

prior to the formation of Rana, Mr. C. J. Christowitz, a 
progressive planter and contractor in Nyasaland had 
launched a small private Company to provide Air Services 
between Blantyre and Salisbury: his fleet consisted of 
two Puss Moths and his pilot was Reg. Bourlay. Old 
hands can still remember these very small aircraft, painted 
a rather violent yellow, coming in to land with uncanny 
regularity, irrespective of rain or storm, after completing 
their three hundred mile flight across the almost featureless 
wastes which lie between Nyasaland and Salisbury. 

Rana absorbed Christowitz Air Services and its thus 
augmented fleet was soon extending its operations and 
increasing the frequency of its services into the Union and 
all adjacent territories. It was building up, also, that 
reputation for safety and punctuality which Rana never 




1932: De Havilland "Hercules" class landplane which 
pioneered the central route from Kisumu to Cape Town. 




R.M.A. "Amalthca", Armstrong Whitworth "Atalanta' ' 

class of Imperial Airways, used on the central route 

from Kisumu to Cape Town, about 1932. 





1934 : De Havilland Fox Moth as used on the Salisbury- 
Johannesburg Service. 



1931 : De Havilland Puss Moth which did much to build 

up civil aviation in its early stages in the Central African 

territories. 



ceased to enjoy until the Second World War brought its 
activities to a close for ever. No brief survey of these 
early days would be complete without mention of Mr. 
"Steve" Launder who, with two or three young engineers, 
maintained and serviced the Rana fleet to such good 
purpose that mechanical breakdowns were very nearly 
unknown, 

HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS 

THE CONDITIONS WITH WHICH RANA'S FIRST 
pilots had to contend would horrify the young pilots 
of to-day. In the first place the entire fleet consisted of 
single engine aircraft and in these frail machines pilots and 

passengers set off in complete confidence to traverse 
hundreds of miles of wild country in which emergency 
landing grounds were practically unknown. As for 
"aids to navigation" — these were conspicuous by their 
absence and wireless was as yet a pious hope which did 
not crystallise into reality for several years to come. 
Meteorological services were in their infancy and weather 
reports, usually by landline, often depended on the frame 
of mind of local elephants who tore down the lines with 
gusto and departed into the bush draped with telegraph 
wires and broken poles. 

It was certainly a hard school but it turned out a breed 
of pilots whom force of circumstances compelled to be 
completely self-reliant and in whom initiative and self- 
confidence were fostered to a high degree; daily the pilot 
would be called upon to make decisions in which his only 
guides were his own judgment and experience. 

Shortage of funds was an ever present handicap during 
Rana's early days. Everyone on the pay roll knew exactly 
how things stood and oil pulled together to get every 
ounce out of themselves and their machines. All knew 
it was useless to badger the Directors for things they gladly 
would, but were financially unable to, provide. Looking 
back now after some sixteen years one cannot doubt that 
Rana, battling against every imaginable handicap, did, in 
fact, lay a very sure foundation for the greater things 
which were to come. 

STEADY IMPROVEMENT 

MEANWHILE THE TEMPO OF DEVELOPMENT 
in aviation was rising throughout Africa. Greater 
speed, greater comfort, greater frequency was the order of 
the day. Nor was the vital importance of improved 
ground services overlooked. Larger and better airfields, 
more and more emergency landing grounds, improved 

meteorological services, quicker and more reliable com- 
munications and above all — wireless; for these and other 
facilities the operators clamoured. Such demands could 

not be met overnight and to many it seemed that progress 
was painfully slow. Specialists to man technical services 
cannot be trained in a month and development must, 
perforce, keep in step with the ability of the country to 
pay the bills. Nevertheless, steady if unspectacular 
progress was made and the public came to regard flying 
as a normal mode of travel rather than as an exciting 
adventure. For example, when in 1935 Sir Herbert 
Stanley entered upon his term of office as Governor of 
Southern Rhodesia he made history by arriving at the 



SouTHiiRN Rhodesia 1S90-1950 



Page 123 



IMPERIAL MOTORS (1940) LTD 



SALES — SERVICE 



MHsfribntortt in Mashimaland of 

* OLDSMOBILE Cars 

* GMC Trucks 



Phone 20987 



Corner BAKER AVENUE and ANGWA STREET 
SALISBURY SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



P.O. Box 136 



BUUWAYO 

P.O. Box 1102 

Phones - 3001 

3002 

3367 




SALISBURY 

P.O. Box 379 

Phones - 24645 

24240 



/ 



LENNON LTD. 

WHOLESALE AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS 

for: 
Mining end Assay Chemicals and Reagents. 
Laboratory Apparatus and Glassware. Crucibles, 
Liners, Cupels and Plumbago. Medical and 
Pharmaceutical Supplies. Photographic Materials 
and Apparatus. Chemical and Assaying Balances. 
PH Apparatus and Indicators 



Page 124 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1-950 




1934: South African Airways Junkers Ju 52 as used on 

the Rand-Bulawavo route, and later to East and West 
Africa. 



Capital City by air. This brings to mind the name of one 
who from the earliest days was a warm friend and energetic 
supporter of Civil Aviation — Sir Hubert Young, then 
Oovernor of Nyasaland and Inter of Northern Rhodesia. 

The ever increasing size and speed of modern aircraft 
led many to believe that landplanes, requiring larger and 
ever larger landing grounds, must in time give place to 
flying boats which would utilise the lakes and seas provided 
by nature rather than valuable land which could be put 
co other important uses. Imperial Airways placed much 
and well founded faith in the flying boat and in due course 
there appeared the first of the famous "C" class flying boats. 
These, on the South African route, followed the course 
of the Nile and thence Southwards via the Great Lakes to 
Mombasa, Beira and Durban. Once the new service 
had got into its stride the Imperial Airways landplanes 
were withdrawn and the Rhodesias were thrown on their 
own resources to make suitable connections with the trunk 
line to Europe. 

To meet the need for a type of medium si:c twin engine 
aircraft the Directors of Rana selected the De Havilland 
"Rapide" and the first of this class was flown out from 
England ro Salisbury by Captain G. 1. Thompson in 1935. 

The choice could not have been better. By the standards 
of that time these aircraft were comfortable and fast and 
their reliability was beyond praise; if proof be needed, 
it lies in the fact that even to-day they are still in use but 
little modified from the original version. 

In the Union of South Africa Civil Aviation has never 
looked back from those almost pioneer days when Union 
Airways were operating various types of Junkers over the 
length and breadth of the country. This is perhaps natural 
enough in a land of vast distances where hundreds of miles 
separate the half dozen principal cities; further, young 
South Africans have always shown a peculiar flair for 
flying both in peace and war. 

WAR CLOUDS 

WHEN THE STORM CLOUDS OH WAR BURST 
into explosion in September, 1939, it was dear 
that for the foreseeable future an abrupt end had come ro 





1934: De Havilland Leopard Moth, the replacement of 
Puss Moth. 



all hopes of further expansion and development. Rana 
passed under military control as the Communication 
Squadron of the Southern Rhodesia Air Force. With 
many it was a sore point that they could not proceed at 
once on active service. The inescapable argument chat the 

essential services must go on has perhaps a hollow ring in 
the ears of the young man bursting with martial ardour. 
All such as could be spared did eventually get away and 
we must be thankful that the great majority came back, 
some with military honours thick upon them ; others, 
alas, did not return. 

Towards the end of the war the need for maintaining a 
Communication Squadron became less urgent and the 
unit blossomed forth as "Southern Rhodesia Air Services". 
This new entity was born under a stormy sky. The war 
was in its last and bitterest stages. The question of being 

able to maintain the fleet ac all in an airworthy condition 
became a nightmare; spare parts were virtually unobtain- 
able but once again necessity became the mother of 
invention and the engineers set out to make for themselves 
what could no longer be imported; ha J the war lasted a 
year or two longer they would probably have been turning 
out complete aeroplanes. At the most difficult hour the 
R.A.F. agreed to hand over a number of 'Anson" twin 
engine aircraft for conversion into passenger carrying 
aeroplanes and thus, in some degree, the worst of the 
Air Services' troubles were met. 




1935: The well-known and popuLar De Havilland 
Rapide. 




Lady Stanley christening one of the two new RANA 
Rapides in 1937. 



1937-38: De Havilland "Dragonfly'' used by RANA 
on scheduled services. 



Southern Rhopesia 1890 1950 



Pace 125 



Foi Your Next HolidaY 




come to Inycmga, Rhodesia's bracing moun- 
tain resort, whers you may enjoy, lo your 
heart's content, Tennis, Bowls, Fishing, Swim- 
ming, Riding, and Walks in majestic scenery 
At the end oi the day, healthily tired after 
your favourite pastime, you may relax in 
the luxurious comfort oi Rhodesia's most 
modern hotel - Dannakay. Here you will 
iind beautifully appointed accommodation, 
and cuisine and service second to none. 



Please be sure to book your 
accommodation well in ad- 
vance, in order to avoid 
disappointment. 



DANNAKAY HOTEL 







A 



WUdeAale Menx^uiU 



/ 




P.O. Box 41 
BULAWAYO 



P.O. Box 49 
SALISBURY 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-195C 



Pace 126 




Imperial Airways "C" class flying boat anchored in the 
Pungwe River at Beira. 



POST-WAR EXPANSION 

WITH VICTORY AND PEACE ASSURED THE 
Governments of the three territories recognised chat 

if Civil Aviation was to hold its own and to develop as it 
ought to develop then it was essential that it be put on a 

new footing. To replace the then existing fleet with fast 
modern types capable of carrying a score or more passengers 
was in itself a financial undertaking of considerable 
magnitude. Fleet replacement was only part of the 
problem; on all sides were dear indications that 
tremendous advances were pending as the lessons and 

discoveries or the war were lurned to civilian use. If Civil 
Aviation in Southern Rhodesia was to keep abreast of this 
upsurge of development and to reap to its full advantage 

the fruits of the worldwide research then proceeding, only 
a body with the strongest financial backing could meet rhe 
situation. In 1946, therefore, was formed the Central 
African Airways Corporation, sponsored by the Govern, 
ments of Southern and Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 

The best and most suitable types of British post-war 
aircraft were selected. Vickers "Vikings", equipped with 
every modern device for che safety and comfort of 
passengers were put into service on the major routes. 
For the feeder services, Linking the remoter settlements 




"Salcombe", first Solent to land on the Zambezi. These 

flying boats are now in regular service between the 

United Kingdom and South Africa. 



with the main centres, the choice tell upon De Havilland 
"Doves" and these fast flying and comfortable aeroplanes 

have fully justified their seleccion. 

And so it may he fairly said that, though the way has 
been long and hard, Civil Aviation in the Rhodesias and 
Nyasaland holds to-day a position second to none in the 
continent of Africa. 




RANA hangar and offices about 1935. Apart from two 
other small hangars rhis was the only building on the 

aerodrome. 





■ ■ ■ 






■ . : : 


„>4^|iflnMHIMVB|B|| 


; 




U 


*" 


*~ ■»- 






JM0 




" 


: . ■ ; 






■- 


•-..-. j-.-.* i;j'j 




'■■ ■ 



South African Airways Junkers Ju 86 which replaced 
the Ju 52.. 




1950: The De Havilland "Dove" which is now in 
regular service on the Central African Airways' routes. 




1950 : The Vickers "Viking", the comfortable and fast aircraft extensively employed by the Central African Airways 

today. 



Southern Rhodesia 1^90-1950 



Page 127 



/ 



Isometric Plan of Fison's New Factory 




RHODESIA 

1927 — 1950 




FISON'S FERTILIZERS were first introduced into Rhodesia 
in 1Q27 In 1930 the original factory was erected at Msasa. 
This building was, from time to time, enlarged and the 
machinery modernised and replaced to keep pace with 
increased demand and improved manufacturing methods. 

It has always been FISON'S policy to give the best 
service to the farmer and to maintain that tradition it has now become 
necessary to manufacture Fertilizers in granular form. 

GRANULAR FERTILIZERS have so many advantages, both 
physically and Irom a plant-feeding point of view, that powder type 
Fertilizers are likely to become obsolete. 

FISON'S NEW FACTORY is situated on the main Bulawayo 
line eight miles from Salisbury. Equipped with machinery of the latest 
type 'or the production of GRANULAR FERTILIZERS this Factory ,s the 
most modem of its kind in Southern Africa. 

FISONS (RHODESIA) LIMITED 

CITY CLUB BUILDINGS, SALISBURY. SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



Tel. 24460 



P.O. Box 190 



Ski 



< Ti5on5 fa 7etti/i^et5 



Southern Rhooesia 1890-1950 



P.\OE 128 




■^■■M 



AGRICULTURE 

II SOiTHERlV RHODESIA 

BY 
CAPTAIN THE HON. F. E. HARRIS, C.M.G., D.S.O. 



FIRST VISITED THE 




''^■'W-y-ZW^- ha ° ueen maae r01 mc acvt • 
''^"■^"^■'■- '-'*' the Estate. The Matopo Dam had been 
built, and it irrigated a considerable 
area. The farms were being very successfully managed 
and developed bv Mr. Hull. A fine herd of Lincoln Red 
shorthorn cattle and a large herd of Large Black pigs were 
being established and were to become well-known through- 
out Rhodesia and the Union of South Africa. Ostriches, 
at that time were also doing well. 



Wagons left each week with produce lor the markets 
at Bulawayo and other centres. Lucerne, lucerne hay, 
oat forage, oats, maize, potatoes, pigs, onions, eggs and 
butter all found a ready market. These farms, with their 
varied production, gave an insight into the possibilities 
which the agricultural and pastoral industry had in Rhodesia . 

A friendship grew up between Teddy Hull, as he was 
affectionately known to all his friends, and me, which 
continued until his death in 1920. This was a great loss 
to all, but especially to the agricultural industry. To me, 
Teddy Hull was my ideal of a farmer and a man, full ot 
energy, with not a lasy bone in him. When Buiawayo 
had a race meeting or a farmers' meeting he would ride 
20 miles on horseback to attend, going back to his farm 
again that night. At the Bulawayo races he was steward, 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 129 



^~^ 




i^ira^i 9£:m$ : & 



-M. C';/ 





THE NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD 



Salisbury 
Southern Rhodesia 



Page 130 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



owner and jockey. How the crowds 
used to cheer when Teddy, as he 
often did, rode one of his own 
horses to victory! W'hat good times 
we used to have, riding over the 
estate, visiting the different farmers, 

all of whom were friends of Teddy, 
most of them having at some time 
worked either for Mr. Rhodes or 
himself. Harry Huntley, Jack Brebner, 
'lorn Bourdillion, C. J. Webb, Percy 
Ross, Gerald Selfe, F. B. Bctt and 
many others belonged to that band. 
Brcbncr's and Huntley's families still 
farm successfully on the Estate. Tom 
Bourdillion is now Manager of De 
Beers' Ranches and President of the 
Bulawayo Agricultural Society. 

It was on Rhodes's Estate that I 
first saw tobacco being grown by 
some native tenants for their own usc- 
After trying to smoke it, I took a very 
dim view of the Rhodcsian product. 



AGRICULTURAL SHOW 

QALISBURY AND BULAWAYO 
^ Agricultural Show Societies were 

formed in those early days and played 

an important part in developing the 

agricultural and pastoral industries. 

The Bulawayo Show Society owes a 

debt of gratitude to Sir Boucher 

Wrcy who, as President over a great 

number of years, did good work in 

building up the Society. Mr. W. A. 

Carnegie has been Secretary so long 

thai he appears to have given his life to it. His continued 

work and efforts are greatly appreciated. We should all 

feel it would be a poor show without W. A, C. 

The Thousand Guinea Floating Trophy was first com- 
peted for in 1914. The Cup is given for the best bull 
on the Show, of any breed and any age. It has been 

competed for with bulls from Great Britain, America, 
the Union of South Africa and the Rhodesias. Mata- 
beleland was always recognised as good cattle country. 

Many herds were being built up and improved. Among 
other good breeders were C. S. Jobling, George Mitchell, 
Bertie Fynn, Joe Stewart and the Maropo farmers. 

Mashonaland, wifb its larger rainfall and good valley 
soils, was developing very rapidly with agriculture- Good 
farmers were realising its possibilities, among them being 
Mr. Duncan Black, Mr. McAfthur. Mr. Newmsrch and 
many others. 



• WAR. 

EVERYTHING APPEARED TO BE SET FAIR WHEN 
*-' the 1914 War came along. The young men of Rhodesia 
went off to carry out their duty to their Empire. Develop- 
ment ceased, and only a few of the older farmers carried 
on as best they could. When the war was over the young 
men came back to make a fresh start. At first agriculture 
appeared to be going well, but about 1922 a slump came 
in world prices and continued for a number of years. 



CAPT. THE HON. F. E. HARRIS, 
C.M.G., D.S.O., Minister of Agri- 
culture and Lands, Southern 
Rhodesia, 1934-1946. 




"On reading through this article, I find 
that I have written more on the people 
in the industry than on the dry facts 
of agriculture — 1 suppose because 1 am 
more interested in them. Anyway, 

they are the people who have made 
and who will make agriculture a great 
factor in building up a great British 
Dominion, based on Rhodesia in 



Africa". 



Sonic farmers hung on and weathered 
the storm, but many lost all they 
possessed. It was a struggle, food- 
stuffs did not appear to be required, 
and even if wanted it was only at 
prices on which the producer could 
not exist or develop his farm ro 
advantage. 



TOBACCO, DISASTER AND 
RECOVERY 

TOURING THIS TIME TOBACCO 
came into some prominence as 

a profitable crop but (here were no 
auction floors in those days and the 
buyers used ro go out to the farms, 
or growers exported their crop direct 
10 London and waited some time 
for their money. There was much 
fluctuation of prices and the types 
of tobacco in demand by the buyers 

varied each year. In 1926 there was 
a great increase in production, as we 
were assured thai Britain would rake 
all the tobacco we could produce. 
The results were disastrous, as 
existing trade channels became clog- 
ged, and much of our tobacco was 
unsaleable and many of the tobacco 
growers, including a number of Em- 
pire settlers, went bankrupt and their 
farms were sold at give-away prices. 
It took many years for the industry 
to recover from this blow, but even- 
tually it was put on its feet by the 
institution of organised sales on to- 
bacco auction floors in 1937, and since then the industry 
has never looked back and has expanded to its present 
large proportions, with tobacco now our most valuable 
exportable commodity. 

About 1930 foot-and-mouth disease appeared in the 
Colony. This closed our markets both for cattle and grain 
and threw chs industry right back again into the doldrums. 
The British South Africa Company had established a 
grand ranch at Nuanetsi and built up a wonderful herd, 
which 1 suppose ranked with the best in the world. 1 
always think it was a tragedy, both to Southern Rhodesia 
and the British South Africa Company, when — against local 
advice- -the London directors decided to close down. If 
they had only hung on for a few more years, what a ranch 
they would have had, and what a rich harvest! 
* * * * 

OFFICIAL ANGLE 
TN 1934 THE PRIME MINISTER, SIR GODFREY 
Huggins, invited me to take on the Portfolio of Ministct 
of Agriculture and Lands. Now, I had had no political 
training but if I could be helpful I thought I ought to try. 
I found many friends who gave good advice, especially in 
the House, where Members — including the Opposition — 
were kind and helpful. For 13 years I served under the 
present Prime Minister as Minister of Agriculture and 
Lands. He was always sympathetic when I was in trouble 
or dilficulty, which was often. 1 soon learnt, however, 
that there was no short cut round the problems of agri- 
culture. In the Department of Agriculture and Lands I 



F. E. HARRIS. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 131 




Plan for Prosperity 



Rhodesians can look back with pride a! 
the achievements of the last 60 years and 
forward with confidence that a new and 
still greater prosperity will be theirs. But 
io secure that future — a future which is 
inextricably bound up with the soil — the 
most careful planning is necessary. 

Planned conservation works are a matter 
to which more and more progressive iarmers 
are giving their attention, and to assist them 
they have at their disposal the revolutionary 
new system of mechanised farming known 
as the "Ferguson System." 



Ten minutes at the controls will con- 
vince you that the Ferguson System will do 
everything the farmer wants to do — do it 
better; at less cost; on every farm, no 
matter how large, how small, how difficult 
to work. 

Farm Mechanisation Ltd., sole distributors 
of the Ferguson System in the Rhodesias 
and Nyasaland, supply a complete range 
of Mechanical Equipment to cover every 
farming operation. 



/ 



FARM MECHANISATION LTD. 



mmsi 



FERGUSON SYSTEM 



Head OfBce and Showrooms: Cor. KINGSWAY and JAMESON AVENUE, SALISBURY; Box 287- Phono 2277° / 

Branches/Deolers : UMTAtl. BULAWATO, GWELO, LUSAKA. MARANDELLAS. GATOOMA FORT VICTORIA, BLANTYHE. 



Page 132 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




itself and 



Left to right: Sir Godfrey Huggins, Prime Minister; Sir Herbert Stanley, 

Governor ; Mr. Duncan Black ; Major H. G. Mundy, and Col. Sir Ellis 

Kobins, at the Agricultural Show, Salisbury, 1938. 



round a loyal and efficient staff who were a great help. I was 
extremely fortunate in the two Secretaries ot Agriculture, 
Major H. G. Mundy and Mr. C. I-. Robertson, both capable 
and who gave me good advice but were prepared to accept 
the position when the Government thought otherwise 
and then carried out the Government's policy to the best 
advantage. They kept me out of a lot of trouble. 

At this time the policy was to discourage the export 
market. This was regrettable, but what else could be done. 
Maize for export gave a return of 3/9 per bag; cattle (our 
best beef) realised lid. to 2d. per lb.; pigs brought in 
2Jd. to 3d. per lb.; butter was 5Jd. per lb.; and eggs 
sold at 4d. per dozen. In London, our tobacco lay unsold. 

To try to improve matters legislation was introduced, 
such as the Maize Control Act. It was never popular 
with anyone, but it was a genuine attempt to help. The 
Maize Control Act was brought in to give all producers 
a share of the local market, the balance to go to the export 
market. To-day you have the exact opposite, the export 
price being higher than the local price. 

The buying of the Cold Storage by the State and the 
appointment of a Commission to administer it really put 
the cattle industry on a sound footing. The thanks of the 
industry are due to Sir Digby Burnett, as Chairman and 
Mr. A. Gelman, the General Manager, for rheir hard work 
and efficiency. To-day the C.S.C. is a great national asset. 

Sir Robert Maclllwaine brought home to the country 
generally the dire necessiry of conserving soil and water, 
and he became the first Chairman of the Natural Resources 
Board. The country owes him a real debt of gratitude for 
his great work. The creation of the National Farmers' 
Union, which allowed the farmers to speak with one voice 
and also advise the Government on all agricultural matters, 
was appreciated both by the Government and the industry. 
Mr. John Dennis and Mr. Humphrey Gibbs played a great 
part in bringing this about: they became the first two 
presidents. 



IMPROVEMENTS 

A MONG THE MAJOR IMPROVE- 
ments for the benefit of agriculture 
have been : 

(a) The purchase of the Cold 
Storage as a State industry. 

(b) The establishment of the Natural 
Resources Board. 

(c) The establishment of the 
National Farmers' Union. 

(d) The Tobacco Marketing Act 
and the establishment of a 
Tobacco Marketing Board. 

In addition, another scheme which 
was introduced was the Maize Bonus, 
whereby an additional payment was 
made to maize growers for all maize 
sold to the Board which could be certi- 
fied as having been grown in accordance 
with sound farming practices such as 
soil protection and green manuring. 
This brought home to farmers the 
need for proper concentrated measures 
it their soil was to be retained and the 
yields increased, and it certainly effected considerable 

improvement in this direction. 

In 1938, with the shadow of war looming over the 
world, it was decided that there must be a change 
of policy; it was beginning to be realised that there 
was going to be a shortage of food and other necessi- 
ties ot life in the world, and that these were of more 
importance than money. The time had come to tell the 
producers that there would be markets for all they could 
produce at remunerative prices. This was a complete 
change of policy and took some time before the full 
benefits could be felt. 

Difficulties have arisen in obtaining the necessary 
machinery and native labour, but these are gradually 
being overcome. Tobacco, after all its setbacks, has proved 



is now we 



11 established 



on 



the world's market. 




Lady Bledisloe presenting the Milne Trophy for the 

Champion Bull to Mr. Duncan Black, at the Salisbury 

Show, 1938. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 133 



• ill Trrriri 111 




/ 



Secretaries, €xecutoi% 
SbmitttetratonS anb tErugteefi 



From the days of the Pioneers . . 

the Salisbury 3oard of Executors has been 
to the public of Rhodesia a household 
name symbolising integrity and efficiency 
in matters of property, finance and trustee- 
ship. Established in 1895, within a few 
years of the occupation, it is the third 
oldest existing Company in the Colony. 
Its present building, constructed in 1911, 
has been a landmark for two generations 
of Rhcdesians, many of whose affairs 
have beer, conducted by the Board. 



The Board undertakes the purchase and 
sale of houses, farms, businesses and 
other property; the administration of 
Estates and Trusts, the management of 
affairs of residents and non-residents; 
the collection of rents and management 
of property; the duties of company 
secretaries; the lending of money and 
investment of capital; and all forms of 
insurance. 



1}eal> Estate, finance &%uste#$hips. 

Comer MANICA ROAD and ANGWA STREET 

SALISBURY 

P.O. Box 21 Telephones 20530. 20929 



Our tobacco now realises more than eleven million pound; 
sterling in our export trade. Tobacco farmers arc among 
our best agriculturists: not only are they now able to 
develop their farms properly, but they know they must 
look after their soils to maintain production. 



NATIVE AGRICULTURE 

pkVER THE PERIOD UNDER REVIEW, EUROPEAN 
'—^ agriculture has made good progress, but the problem 

of improved agriculture in Native Reserves stilt remains 

unsolved. In the western part of Matabeleland (PJumtrec 
district), before 1920 this district supplied the mines of 
Southern Rhodesia, including those in Mashonaland, 
with native grains, monkey nuts and beans in very latge 
quantities, but with the introduction of the plough, no 
soil conservation, and down-hill ploughing, the good 
top-soil soon went down the rivers. To-day these districts 
cannot produce enough to feed themselves. With the 
increase in the native population and also in their herds 
and flocks, huge areas are being ruined each year. Giving 
them more land to ruin is not the solution. A scheme will 
have to be worked out, so that the land can be properly 
farmed. The native people working in the towns and in 
industries should be properly housed in villages adjoining 
their work, where they can live with their families. 

They can no longer be both farmers in the reserves and 
workers engaged in industries in the European towns, I 
know much time and thought has been given to this 
question, but up to now the results arc not noticeable. 
On the contrary, every year the position in the Reserves 
is worsening. 



SUGAR AND COTTON 

'"THE EXPERIMENT OF GROWING SUGAR IN 
Southern Rhodesia, so far from the sea coast, has 
proved very interesting. In the hot, low-lying part of the 
country the Government is developing the Triangle 
Estate. It has been proved that with irrigation and the 
right strain suitable to this country sugar can be grown 
successfully. Good progress is being made, and it is the 
opinion of men who know, chat, at least, we will eventually 
produce the sugar to supply our own needs. A sugar 
refinery is already esrablished at Bulawayo, and the possi- 
bility of growing sugar in the Zambesi Valley is now 
being investigated by a private company. 

Cotton is a crop which every farmer should grow, even 
on a small acreage. It is a paying crop and also a splendid 
rotation one. Major G. S. Cameron has done great work 
in developing strains suitable for Southern Rhodesia and 
has also developed the Government spinning mills at 
Gatooma, thus adding another good industry to the 
country. 



SPEECH MADE IN 1943 
T-O ROUND OFF THIS SHORT SURVEY OF 
agriculture in Southern Rhodesia, I want to quote 
from a speech I made in 1943— for I feel it applies even 
more so ro-day. 



Page 134 



Southern- RHonpsiA I S9O-1950 



This is what 1 said : 

"It must be remembered, in looking 
at all the problems of agriculture, that 
the controlling factors are the soil and 
soil conservation. These must come 
first, before you can rectify the other 
ills of agriculture. There is no single 
remedy for such ills. The wholesale 
displacement of ownership to the Stale 
is ill-suited to our conditions and 
foreign to our traditions and character. 

A farmer should be given the 
opportunity and encouraged to own 
his land, for the State is a bad land- 
lord. Farmers are not prepared to 
work for a Government; however 
great may be its powers to enforce 
good cultivation, the good men will 
gradually drift away to other indus- 
tries and the State will be left with 
the poor farmer- In short, we are 
driven back to the conclusion that 
without a fair and level price for 
agricultural products, land nationalis- 
ation is doomed to failure: if stability 
exists, nationalisation is superfluous. 

World prices cannot be based on 
the uncontrolled working of supply 
and demand, but must be based on 
the cost of efficient production under 
conditions which ensure a reasonable 
standard of living. What is required 
is stability, not onLy for the producer 
but for the consumer. The wild fluctu- 
ations of unregulated production must 
be eliminated, and it must be ensured 
that the consumer gets supplies at a 
price level which is reasonable. 

This is the necessary structure on which agriculture 
must be built, and this can only be brought about by 
Governments safeguarding the agricultural industry. It 
is not asking for exceptional treatment, but it does ask 
for what most other industries already possess, and what 
after the war, it can be safely predicted, all will insistently 
demand. It is the duty of the State to provide for the 
future of sericulture. 

The worker on the land can no longer We a hewer of 
wood and a drawer of water to the industrial population. 
The agricultural industry must also play its part in greater 
efficiencv, both technical and scientific and must be 





Cutting sugar cane on the Triangle Ranch. 



Mr. C. L. Robertson, Chairman, Natural Resources Board (second from 

right, front row), and Mr. L. H. Stewart, Secretary, Natural Resources 

Board (extreme left), with the chairmen of Salisbury District Intensive 

Conservation Area Committees. 



prepared to submit to measures of national direction and 
control. 

Subsidies have got certain advantages. They do show 
clearly the cost of assistance, and during difficult times they 
can be justified, but: experience has proved that they are 
politically undesirable. They are regarded by the producer 
as a dole to consumption and by the consumer as a dole 
to production. To the taxpayer, subsidies appear as a 
burden laid on his shoulders for the benefit of producers 
and consumers alike. They are the cause of constant 
friction and debate. In future, the direct subsidy should 
be avoided and prices must be fixed on a fair basis. 

When arriving at fair prices the 
costs of distribution must be examined 
carefully. To those who advocate low 
farm prices in order to preserve a 
reasonable cost of living for the urban 
population, it may be pointed out that 
the same result could be obtained by 
a reduction in the cost of distribution. 
We have had several examples of 
how this can he brought about in 
cattle, pigs, butter and maize, etc. 

To have price stability you UHlSI 
have control. This is a fundamental 
fact, for in the absence of efficiencv 
the nation cannot be expected to 
guarantee the farmer. But just as an 
unreasonably high level of prices is 
not in the best interest of the pro- 
ducer, so over-rigid control is not in 
the best interest of the State. 

What is required is a system 
strong enough to curb inefficiency, 
while at the same time giving full 
play to individual enterprise". 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 135 




v,ith one ma- cortug ated 
.. .. i..,rw to 



B turning ? u ' 




and »= C ?or a 'ho using - 
units »' 



s iOt Housing. d 

Commenced Pr supplymgl he a f tn er 

high-pr» sure 

laCt0lY ' has been es^^. 

auction ana 

taken. , deve lopment » 

The company, P^f^ the .*»*& 
roS^V^oireCoWnV. 

P° r,et S in area* demand in i erecled , 

<* ucte are 'd domestic use- ta 8 ^ an 





TM.1 FACTOR. 



priRTFB'S CEMENT INDUSTRIES (RHODESIA) LTD. 

PORTbK po. Cox 603. Salisbury. Tol. 22161. 22162. 

P.O. Box 348. Umtali. Tel. 6-21. 

PORTER'S CEMENT INDUSTRIES (BULAWAYO) LTD. 
1U P.O. Box 1753. Bulawayo. Tel. 4619, 2971. 



CEMENT INDUSTRIES 



nft 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




^8^^P^;HE STORY OF COMMERCE IK 
'■■?'& ?//$'^J< Southern Rhodesia begins with the tale 
Sfr^gfazP*^?. ot merchant adventurers in the best 
?'%&$%'l¥?r. Bricish Iradi( 'ons but instead of small 
\*'f~''^':%fii?':$ ships facing the dangers or" the oceans 
z£'f^&^'?3'. C ' 1Cre were wa §°" s antl even scotch 
&*£l£?*si&&%S} carcs wnicn journeyed through the 
deserts and cut dangerous trails with 
their precious freights of food, clothing and refreshment. 

Meiklc's and other wagon trains helped to keep the 
Pioneers alive and even John Dunlop's scotch cart played 
its pari. Mr. Dunlop buile a temporary store at Victoria 
of whisky cases and tarpaulins but afterwards sold out to 
the Meikle brothers, Tom, Stewart and John, so that he 
could make another trip, 

Tom Meikle became the doyen of Rhodesian com- 
mercial men and the organisation he founded now controls 
large and even vast interests covering stores, hotels, land 
and other businesses. 

In those esirly days the arrival of supply wagon trains 
were great events and very old settlers will recollect the 

disappointment they felt on one occasion when having 
ridden out from Bulawayo to meet a train and get supplies 
of bacon, flour, baking powder and other goods they 
found that the loads consisted of nothing but whisky. 



f 



LONG CREDIT 

HE HISTORY OF THE ADVANCE OF COMMERCE 
is also the history of the Colony. Commerce has kept 
pace with the progress of the country and even on occasions 
set the pace. Part of the development of the Colony is 
undoubtedly due to the aid given to young and struggling 
industry, primary and secondary, by the merchants who 
allowed long credits for the goods and machinery needed 
to produce minerals, farm produce and manufactured 
goods. 




From 
MERCHMT ™' 
to 

COMMERCE 

and 

INDUSTRY 

By CYRIL ALLEN, o.b.e., j.p. 




Soi-thehn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 137 



If the truth were known 

it would probably be found 
that ninny men whose work 
wns crowned with ultimate 
success owed much to the 
merchants who "carried" 
them during the lean years. 
But commerce itself was 
young and struggling and in 
those early days few firms 
were so solidly established 
and financed that they did 
not themselves need assist- 
ance. Mere the banks came 
into the picture and it says 

much for their faith in the 
future of the country and 
the integrity of the mer- 
chants that they provided 
money so freely. 

To-day the Standard Bank 
and Barclay's Bank are 
national institutions inti- 
mately associated with the 
financial life ot the country, 
thoroughly an /flit with its 
heart beats and fluctuations 
and still helping, guiding, 
advising and supporting. 

The relations between 
individuals and the banks 
have always been close and 
men of sterling character 
and financial probity have 
found the banks to be their 
very good friends. In very 
many instances the only real 
security for help given was 
the character of the recipi- 
ent. 

The banks and the public 

have been well served by a 

succession of competent 

managers of broad outlook in whom the public has the 

completes! faith and confidence. 



MAKESHIFT TRADING 
/"COMMERCIAL MEN SETTLED DOWN RAPIDLY 

^-' in the new country, stores were opened in the main 
centres, on main routes and near mines and thus Rhodesian 
commerce had its birth. It proved to be a lusty youngster 

though there were hard years and many illnesses and 

accidents before the present chromium glitter could come 

into existence. 

In very many of the earlier stores bookkeeping was 

elementary, the only fittings were cases of goods opened 
up and turned on their sides as chey arrived. Stocktaking 
was not as systematic as ic is to-day. There were no 
income tax and other returns to be made out and progress 
was judged by the presence or absence of a credit bank 
balance. 

Some of the tradeis were more advencurers than com- 
mercial men and strange stories are told of what was 




tound when occasional 
clearing was undertaken. 
Newly arrived cases had 
masked partially emptied 
ones which had lain long 
forgotten. Some traders had 
surprises when the front 
rows of boxes were taken 
down, it is even rumoured 

that machinery, pianos and 
other large goods were 
revealed. 

Imports which were once 
reckoned in wagon loads 
have grown to many 
thousands of tons with a 
value of many million 
pounds. 

To-day commerce is 
served by ships, trains and 
motor cars. Travelling 

from town to town is less 
of an exciting adventure, 
the roads, considering the 
enormous mileage in com- 
parison with the population 
are excellent, trains are 
convenient and comfortable 
and aeroplanes have begun 
to play their part. 



MR. CYRIL ALLEN, O.B.E., J.P. 
the author of this article, who recently retired from 
the editorship of the Sunday Mail, was articled to 
newspaper work in 1893 and practised his profession 
in England, Canada, the United States, Natal, Japan 
and the Far East before coming to Southern Rhodesia. 



c 



ORGANISED 
COMMERCE 

OMMERCIAL MEN 



for united consultation and 
action and Chambers of 
Commerce were early in the 
field and they in turn were 
combined into a Federated 
Chamber representing all 
local organisations, discuss- 
ing commercial problems on a high level, and making 
representations to the Government with considerable 
power and authority. 

So well has commerce established itself that in 1946 the 
total taxable incomes of commercial men and commercial 
companies reached the total of £3,500.000, of which 
amount half was received by individuals. The incomes 
from commerce were exceeded only by the incomes from 
rents and were greater than those of mining or farming. 
In that: year the total taxable incomes of the Colony were 
over £20 million and commerce paid the greatest amount 
of nctt tax. 

Not only does commerce to-day cater for many tastes 
but it also plays its part in creating new tastes and providing 
the means for their satisfaction. In all the main towns 
there are stores of pleasing architecture with modern 
fittings and the new science of management is well displayed. 
Commerce has every reason to feel pride in its sixty-year 
achievement. There are still a few who can remember the 
early days and contrast then and now. Not many are alive 
co-day who took part in commerce during the closing 
years of the last century but the sound praccices on which 

(continued on l>agc 141) 



Pace 138 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




Rhodcsian Cement factory at Colleen Bawn near Gwanda. 




DELEGATES TO THE CONFERENCE OF THE RHODESIA FEDERATED CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE 

IN BULAWAYO ON FEBRUARY 23, 1948- 
Front row, left to right: Councillor H. A. Holmes, Mayor ofBulawayo; Sir Allan Welsh, Sir Miles Thomas; Mr. G. A. 
Davenport, Minister of Commerce and Industry; the Prime Minister, Sir Godfrey Huggins; Mr. M. G. Fleming, President 
of the Bulnwayo Chamber of Commerce; Mr. E. F. C. Whitehead, Minister of Finnnce; Mr. P. B. Fletcher, Minister 
of Agriculture ; Mr. T. H. W. Beadle, Minister of Internal Affairs; Sir Arthur Griffin, General Manager of the Rhodesia 
railways. 

Second row: Mr. K. St. Quintin; Mr. G. R. A. Johnson (now Vice-President of the Rhodcsian Federated Chambers 
of Commerce); Senhor M. A. Ribeiro, President, Associacao Commercial Beira) ; Mr. M. Pearl; Mr. J. Burke; Mr. F. 
A. Perrow; Mr. G. E. McLeod; Mr. A. Sanders; the late Mr. I. J. Poley; Mr. A. G. Kerr. 

Third row: Mr. R. A. Ballantyne; Mr. H. G. Payne; Mr. B. M. Gough; Mr. E. Watson, President of the Salisbury- 
Chamber of Commerce; Mr. B.Goldstein; Mr. H. Krikler; Mr. C- P. Kinrnont; Mr. R. Paisey; Mr. L. Wood; Mr. Z. 
Kaufman; Mr. F. A. Bennett; Mr. B. F. Wright; Mr. A. H. Murrell; Mr. D. H. Tobilcock. 

Fourth row: Mr. H. J. Filmer; Mr. F. Hackney; Mr. A. Landau; Mr. H. H Penman; Mr. Stanley Cooke, President 
of the Rhodesia Federated Chambers of Commerce ; Mr. D. Broad ; Mr. J. H. Allen. 

Fifth row: Mr. A. W. Sturgess ; Mr, C. S. Small; Mr. M. M. Buchan; Mr. O. R, Baxcndale; Mr. J. G. Maxwell; Mr. J. 
W. Fittj Mr. S. S. Grossberg; Mr. H, A. Cheetharo; Mr. H. J. Cook. 
Sixth row: Mr. A. C. Slater; Mr, C. R. Hutchings, 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 139 



W&E SILKS LTD 




for 

LADIES' WEAR 

and 

MEN'S SPORTS WEAR 

WARM INTERLOCK 
UNDERWEAR, SILK 
SHIRTS, PYJAMAS, 
DRESSING GOWNS, 
SOCKS, TIES, ETC. 



VVscE 




Cnr. GORDON AVENUE 

and 

FIRST STREET 

SALISBURY 

Phone 24400 P.O. Box 1121 



LINKED 

with 

THE NAME 

and 

FAME 

of 

SOUTHERN 
RHODESIA 



Charter 




BOTTLE STORE 

PRICE 

14/6 

PER BOTTLE 



Page 140 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




A section of Salisbury's industrial area. 



(continued from l>as<-' 1-38) 

commerce was founded have been continued by the 
successors. New ideas have been absorbed and converted 
into action which has resulted in the present day excellence 
of the stores and gives promise for future advance. 



"MADE IN RHODESIA' 

THE RECORD OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS IN 
-*- Southern Rhodesia during the lasc decade is striking. 
The volume of output has nearly trebled, productivity of 
labour has risen 1 1 per cent and the cost of labour 40 per 
cent but owing to the increased productivity of labour 
this has been reduced co 26 per cent. This advance took 
pLace despite the violent dislocation of economic life 
caused by the war and its repercussions. 

Two years ago the net value of the products of secondary 
industries was almost £!4 million. When the figures for 
last year are available it will undoubtedly be found that 

even that high figure will be greatly exceeded; further 
rapid advance is certain. This growth is not as widely 
known as it should be but each year sees new producrs 
on the market "Made in Rhodesia". 

In older countries secondary industries developed from 
the work of individuals operating in small workshops or 
back yards and to some extent this has happened here 
but the greater number of our industries have been planned 
and have begun with all the advantages of the systems, 
machinery and plant evolved in more established 
industries. 

In the early days after the Occupation the country lived 
on mining but agriculture soon became of economic and 
social importance. Now the two primary industries have 
been passed as wealth producers by secondary industries 
whose net output in 1947 — and the operative word is 
"net"— was £13,804,000. 



The gross mineral output was £7,586,000 and European- 
owned farms produced £13,080,000. The gross value of 
the output of secondary industries was £29,080,000. The 
net output is the fund from which dividends, capital 
additions, maintenance and replacement, wages and 
salaries, rates and taxes are paid. The net output represents 
the values created in the Colony. The considerable 
advance may be judged from the fact that in 1938 the gross 
value of the output of industries was £8 million. 

The figures in regard to secondary industries have been 
carefully analysed by the Government Statistician, Mr. J. 
R. H. Shaul and the various tables reveal a position that 
should be carefully studied by all industrialists. They 
give a sound base for faith in the progress and expansion 
of the country. 



COLONY'S GENUINE INDUSTRIES 
TOURING HIS VISIT TO THE COLONY TO LEARN 
-*— * how the Victoria Falls Hotel was conducted so that 
he could gather hints for the Union's proposed national 
hotels, Mr. Sturrock, a Union Minister, saw no future 
for Southern Rhodesia except as the producer of raw 

materials for use by the industries of the South. 

Countries providing raw materials and little else in- 
variably have a low standard of living and this prospect 
does not appeal to Rhodesians. To-day there arc about 

700 industrialists here producing over 150 articles or kinds 

of goods and in 1947 they paid over £7 million in wages 
and salaries. For the last ten years the European part of 
the labour force has remained constant at about 12 per cent 
out of a total in 1947 of 71,466 of all races. 

At first some of the so-called secondary industries were 
mere money making concerns that did little more than 
pack and label imported materials but nowadays most or 
them are genuine industries actually manufacturing and 
each year using more and more of the raw materials of 

the country. 



Southern Rhooi-sia 1890-1950 



Page 141 




1 929 

Twenty-one years of steady progress 
have enabled us to expand and meet 
the exacting demand of our customers. 

Our Products have always been right 
and the wise housewife now always 
asks for "VICTORIA FLOUR" for 
successful baking. 

THE MIDLANDS MILLING CO. LTD. 

Gwelo 



/ 




. i 



1950 



Page 142 



Southern Rhodesia 18W-I950 



In 1947 no fewer than 14 firms had outputs valued at 
more than a quarter of a million each. It is significant chat 
the number of industries whose output was valued at less 
than £5,000 a year fell from 155 to 79 because many of 

them had expanded. In 1938 the average output per firm 
was £15,500 but by 1947 it had risen to £46,500, an advance 
of over 200 per cent. 

During the decade ended 1947 employment in factory 
industries nearly trebled, the value of the materials used 
and of the net output of factory industries multiplied 
nearly four-fold. The value of secondary industries is 
now in the neighbourhood of that of Western Australia. 



EFFICIENCY 

'"THE ESSENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF INDUSTRIAL 
■*■ expansion is efficiency, in overhead costs reduced to 
a minimum, in the production per unit of labour and the 
exclusion of wasted labour and material. Judged by 
these standards Rhodesian industries have made consider- 
able strides. 

Whilst costs of material and labour have risen there is 
an increase of II per cent in the production per unit 

above that of ten years ago. The return of workers who 
had been to the war and lost some of rheir industrial 
efficiency, which it took some time to recover, and the 
beginning of new industries that had not had cime to 



organise properly, lowered the production per unit for a 
year or two but the latest figures show a steady rise. 
Efforts will probably be made to ascertain to what extent 
production has been improved by the use of machinery and 
power. 

Again taking the 1947 figures it is interesting to learn 
that nearly 42 million pounds of bread were manufactured 
that year and 52 million pounds ot chilled and lro:en meat 
were sold. Even ice cream contributed to the total with 
an output worth £'41,000 and over 9 million pounds ot 
soap were manufactured. Metal manufacturing and 
\ engineering contributed over £4 million. 

It will be seen that secondary industries have added 
nobly to the wealth of the country and much more may be 
expected from them. By the use of raw materials new 
wealth is created and employment provided. Secondary 
industries were assisted by the urgent demands of the 
war years when the Colony had to provide itself with 
many things or go without but the wave of progress 
continued into the peace years and is still advancing to-day. 







RHODESIA'S SUGAR INDUSTRY 

The present Refinery was established in Bulawayo in 1936 to supply sugar requirements 
of Southern and Northern Rhodesia and portion of Bechuanaland. The annual con- 
sumption of sugar in these territories, which was then about 9,000 tons, has increased to 
34,000 tons, and is still rapidly increasing. A Branch Refinery is being erected in 
Salisbury to cope with this increasing consumption. 

Products are:- No. 1 REFINED AND BROWN SUGAR; ICING, CASTER AND CUBE SUGAR; 
GOLDEN SYRUP; IMFE AND COOKING TREACLE; AND MOLASSES FOR STOCK FEEDING. 
SOLE SELLING AGENTS : : MESSRS. FRANCIS & CO. LTD.. BULAWAYO. SALISBURY, NDOLA. 



RHODESIA SUGAR 



<§► 



REFINERY LTD. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 143 




AERIAL VIEW OF FACTOXY 



Pedograph by the Air Survey Section oi Csn 



Iral Africar. Airw 



t 



The Lytton Tobacco Co. Ltd. sprang from 
what was originally known as Lytton Estates, 
later Lytton Tobacco Export Co. Ltd., established 
in the- Colony in 1926. 

When Tobacco Auction Sales in the 
Rhodesiao and Nyasaland were started the 
Company abandoned growing operations and 
disposed oi all tobacco estates with the 
exception oi headquarters near Salisbury 
where it was decided to concentrate on leal 
handling operations. 

The Company's up-to-date plant at 
Lytton Siding, seven miles from the city by 
tarmac road, is fully equipped and staffed to 
buy re-qrade, stsm and otherwise proceso. 
pack and export all types of Rhodesian and 
Nyasaland tobacco. Processing machinery 
installed includes adequate steam generating 
plant and electrically driven ordercrs, hanging 
belts, sand and dust removers, screens, con- 
veyors, etc., also two Proctor & Schwartz re 
drying machines, one o! which is the Latest model 



drcct drive No. 7 Super-Dryer. The over-a' 
fectorv floor area of 1C0.000 sq. ft. includes base 
n-ent conditioning and storage bays. A private 
siding en the main Salisbury, Bulav/ayo lino 
affords efficient rail facilities. 

Up to 30 Europeans and 600 Africans are 
employed. Many of the staff live on the 
adjoining estate, Aspindale Park, where ocean 
modation is provided by the Company. African 
employees and their families ars also housed 
on the estate, and the many amenities provided 
for them include steam cooked midday meals, 
water light, water-borne sewerage, school 
church, cinema, radio broadcasts, trading store, 

beer hall and sports ground. 

Directors are Col. the Hon. Sir Ernest 

Guest KBE., C.M.G., C.V.O. (Chairman); Sir 

Edward Baron; P. Lytton Baker, Esq.; John A. 

Sinclair, Esa.; Geoffrey H. A. Goodwin, Esq.; 

Charles B. Taberer, Esq., B.Com. (Managing 

Director): G. R. A. Johnson, Esq., A.J.M.E.; CM. 

Milner. Esq. Secretary: E. G. Bowles. Esq. 

Chief Buyer; I. Harrison, Esq. 



LYTTON TOB 



ACCO COMPANY, LTD 

- " CABLES : " LEAF," SALISBltRy. 



LYTTON SIDIKG. SAU 3 BU B V. r SOUTHKHN HHODES,A ; ^^ & ^ ^ ^^ & ^ 



Southern Rhodesia. 1890-1950 



PaGS I'M 





A SURVEY OF THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN SOUTHERN* RHODESIA 

By D. D. BROWN 

Chief Tobacco Officer, Department of Agriculture, Southern Rhodesia 



HISTORICAL 



-*<&S~-. ,-*-■.< 




«£^®?RECrSE INFORMATION 
concerning the introduction of 
the tobacco plant to Southern 
Africa is not available. In the 
absence of authentic records, it 
is surmised that tobacco was first 
introduced through the agency 
of the early Portuguese explorers and Arab slave 
traders visiting the southern and eastern shores 
of Africa. Cultivation of the plant subsequently 
extended far into the interior of the continent 
until finally it was distributed generally through- 
out all areas climatically suited to its growth. 



&%& 



Natives of Southern Rhodesia, before the 
arrival of the white settlers, cultivated their own 
tobacco, which then, as it is today, was allowed 
to grow as a weed around their "kraal" in small 
and irregular patches, sufficient in extent to 
supply the requirements of the inmates. The 
best known areas were situated in the Wankie 
district, whence came supplies of tobacco 
for the use of Lobengula, the last of the Matabele 
kings, and in the Sebungwe district where the 
famous "Nyoka" tobacco was grown and manu- 
factured for sale in the form of cones, balls and 
carrotes. Tobacco was also cultivated in the 
eastern districts. 



Southern Rhohesia 1890-1950 



Page 145 



The first record of tobacco being planted by 
a white settler was the crop planted by a pioneer 
on the farm 'The Park", Umtali in the year 
1894. The quantity harvested weighed ~>l« lbs., 
and after being matured the cut tobacco realised 
4s. 6d. per lb. 

In 1898-99 a small area was planted to tobacco 
in the Nyamandhlovu district, and in 1900 the 
crop was tried at Filabusi, Umzingwane district. 
In the season 1903-1904 tobacco was grown on 
as manv as a hundred farms in the Colony. 
These experimental plantings in the various 
districts were so successful that in 1904 an 
agriculturalist, resident in Southern Rhodesia, 
was sent over to the United States of America 
to study tobacco culture, and on his return was 
appointed to the staff of the Department of 
Agriculture as Tobacco Expert The first 
"Tobacco Handbook" was published in 19U3 
for the guidance of tobacco growers in the 
Colony. 

* * * 

TURKISH TYPE TOBACCO HAD BEEN 
grown experimentally at Plumtree, Figtree, 
Umgusa and other centres in the Colony_with 
promising results, and in the year 1907 the 
Tobacco Expert was sent to Turkey and Greece 



to study tobacco culture in those countries and 
to select technical advisers for the industry. 
During the course of his visit 14 Greeks were 
selected for service in Southern Rhodesia and 
they arrived in Salisbury on December 14, 1907. 
Their services proved beneficial in establishing 
the culture of Turkish type tobacco which, by 
1912, was expected to show some expansion. 
A number of these men subsequently settled in 
the countrv to take up tobacco growing on their 
own account and a few remain actively engaged 
in the industry today. 

It is recorded that Turkish tobacco was 
auctioned in Bulawayo in 1911. The sale was 
conducted by the British South Africa Company 
at the police camp. 

For a number of reasons the Turkish tobacco 
industrv made but slow progress and failed to 
come up to expectations. By 1918 the acreage 
had increased to 813 acres, which yielded 
205,000 lbs., ten years later the acreage was 
about the same but the yield had doubled. After 
a further decade the acreage had doubled and 
the yield trebled. It was not until the year 
1941 that, for the first time, the acreage exceeded 
2,000 acres and production one million lbs. 

After experiencing the same difficulties and 
disappointments as the Virginia tobacco growers 



AFRICAN TOBACCOS LTD 






,LL TYPES OF VIRGINIA & TURKISH 
TOBACCO BOUGHT, PACKED AND 
EXPORTED. 

O ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



( EAF STRIPS OR SCRAP PACKED 
IN HOGSHEADS, CASES OR 
BALES. 




Phone 22506 

Cables: "AFTOBAC" 

P.O. Box 960, SALISBURY 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 



Pace 146 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



in establishing markets for their product, the 
growers of Turkish type tobacco eventually had 
only one market remaining, namely, the Union 
of South Africa. Consequently the annual 
production of Turkish tobacco was governed by 
the requirements of the Union market and the 
output remained fairly constant for a number of 
years. The tobacco was sold under contract 
at prices which gave a fair average return to the 
growers. This continued until 1930 when the 
Union Government introduced an import quota 
allowing only 400,000 lbs. of Southern Rhodesia 
Turkish type tobacco to be imported duty free 
into the Union. In the next year the quota of 
duty free tobacco was reduced by half and in 
1 938 was cancelled entirely. The sale of Southern 
Rhodesia Turkish type tobacco in the Union 
thus ceased and the sudden disappearance of 
their principal market proved disconcerting to 
the growers, whose immediate reaction was to 
concentrate on the development of new markets 
overseas. Soon a number of markets were 
found and the Turkish tobacco industry became 
established on a wider and sounder basis than 
would have been possible had the industry 
continued with only one outlet. 

In 1905 small commercial plantings of Virginia 
type tobacco were made in a number of districts, 
and a warehouse, under the management of a 
qualified warehouseman brought over from the 
United States of America in that year, was 
opened by the Commercial Branch of the British 
South Africa Company in order to assist in the 
manipulation and sale of tobacco produced by 
the farmers. At first the tobacco was sold by- 
private treaty, but in 1910 the first auction sale 
of Rhodesian tobacco was held in Salisbury on 
January 19th when 100,000 lbs. of the 1909 
crop were sold for £5,833 at an average of Is. 2d. 
per lb. In the next year 192,065 lbs. of leaf 
were auctioned at an average of Is. 4§d. per lb. 
and 80,000 lbs. were purchased by the Tobacco 
Companv of Rhodesia and South Africa Ltd., 
for manufacture within the territory. The 1911 
crop was auctioned in Salisbury on January 31st 
and February 1st and 2nd, 1912 when buyers 
representing eight firms were present. The crop 
offered for sale constituted a record and amounted 
to 453,495 lbs. All, with the exception of 
46,093 lbs. of Turkish leaf, was of the Virginia 
type. The average price paid for Virginia leaf 
was Is. 2|d. per lb. and for Turkish 2s. lid. 
A small parcel (900 lbs.) of tobacco grown on 
*he farm "Mungo", Marandellas district, fetched 
3s. 7d. per lb., this being the highest price 
recorded for Virginia type tobacco at the sale. 
Of the Turkish tobacco a bale of about 50 lbs. 
weight was sold at a record price of 4s. 4d. per lb. 

The continued satisfactory prices gave greater 
confidence and caused production to increase 
rapidly. 

The crop of 1912-13 totalled 3,061,750 lbs. 
The packed leaf was offered for sale in May, 
1914, but on account of disagreement between 




Seed beds on a Rhodesian tobacco farm. 



the Tobacco Company of Rhodesia and South 
Africa Ltd., who were then operating the ware- 
house, and the visiting buyers, no sales were 
effected. A portion of the crop, 1,198,000 lbs. 
was exported to the United Kingdom and failed, 
for economic reasons, to realise satisfactory 
prices. The remainder of the crop was held 
and »radually disposed of during the next two 
years. The failure of the auction sales resulted 
in the bankruptcy of many growers and tobacco 
culture, both Virginia and Turkish, rapidly 
lost favour with the farming community and 
production declined. The yield dropped from 
3 million lbs. to less than half a million and 
remained under one million lbs. until 1919 when 
the crop amounted to 1,467,612 lbs. compared 
with the crop of 620,171 lbs. harvested during 
the previous season. Although the reduction 
in output during the period 1914-1918 was due 
mainly to the unsatisfactory prices offered for 
the tobacco, production was also affected by 
the outbreak of World War I. 



FORMATION OF CO-OPERATIVE 
SOCIETY 

AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE AUCTION 
system of marketing, the Rhodesia Tobacco 
Co-operative Society (registered) was formed in 
1915 to undertake the warehousing and sale of 
tobacco, and generally to promote the welfare 
of the industry. It is to this society that the 
subsequent progress of tobacco cultivation is 
largely due. 

For some time after the formation of the above 
societv, growers were suspicious of tobacco 
culture and consequently production increased 
but slowly until the season 1918-1919. ^ Since 
1918 the Rhodesia Tobacco Co-operative Society 
(registered) sold Virginia type tobacco under 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-195O 



Page 147 



/ 




THE FOUNDATIONS OF AN INDUSTRY 

R.T.W. T.P.F. 

The Company's property covers an area ol 28 acres, over 10 of which are 
under rooi. The origin of Ihis large concern, which now buys, packs, and ships flue- 
cured, fire-cured and Turkish type tobacco to all parts of the world, sprang from the 
first Tobacco Planters' Co-Operative Society, which was the growers' initial effort to 
organise marketing in 1911, but over-production which followed later brought about its 
downfall. It was subsequently resuscitated at a later date, and in 1923 its place was 
taken by the Rhodesia Tobacco Warehouse and Export Co, Ltd., which in turn was 
liquidated in 1946 with the formation of Rhodesia Tobacco Warehouse <S Export Co. 
(1946) Ltd. 

Daring was the experiment, when in 1936, the industry committed itself to auction 
sales, and it was soon found necessary !o form a separate company to handle this side 
of the business and the Tobacco Producers Floor Ltd. was formed in 1938. From the start 
ii was a success, for the foundations on which the whole scheme was based were 
remarkably sound — so much so that no major alterations have been made to the system 
during the last 14 years. On the sales floor or Tobacco Producers Floor Ltd. bales are 
sold at the rate of eight a minute and the grower receives payment within half an hour 
oi the completion of his sale. 






»»»,«*»«„,»; 



— -^ - - - .—..-•-- :.;;-,.Xv;-;;;:.-=;^:.::-:;; : V.X _ C ; 




mmmm 



■-s taSSKaj ss 







THE RHODESIA TOBACCO 
WAREHOUSE & EXPORT CO. (1946) LTD. 

SALISBURY. S. RHODESIA 



TOBACCO PRODUCERS 
FLOOR LTD. 



'aoe 148 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



contract with the Tobacco Development Co., 
Ltd., and the African Tobacco Manufacturers, 
Cape Town. The contracts were made to cover 
a period of three years with optional extension 
of the period, the prices were fixed for a like 
period and ranged front 3s. 7d. per lb. for the 
top grade to 3d. per lb. for the lowest grade 
leaf. A system of standard grades was designed 
for the classification of tobacco to be sold under 
these contracts and these grade marks were 
adopted as Rhodesian Standard Grades, which 
continue to be used in the grading of tobacco 
in farm and commercial grading sheds at the 
present time. 

In 1923 the Rhodesian Tobacco Co-operative 
Society was placed in voluntary liquidation and 
its assets and liabilities were assumed by the 
Rhodesia Tobacco Warehouse and Export Com- 
pany, Limited. This company was composed 
of members of the old Society and a number 
of these tobacco growers are still active members 
of the Rhodesia Tobacco Warehouse and 
Export Company, Limited, which was formed 
purely as a marketing organisation conducted 
on co-operative lines. An extensive, modern 
warehouse equipped with a Proctor re-drying 
machine was built in Salisbury for the proper 
handling of members' tobacco crops. At 
intervals as it became necessary the warehouse 
has been enlarged to cope with crop expansion 
and another Proctor re-drying machine was 
installed in the year 1928, The present floor 
space amounts to approximately a quarter of a 
million square feet including the. auction floor 
which is operated by the Tobacco Producers 
Floor, Limited — a subsidiary to the Rhodesia 
Tobacco Warehouse and Export Company, 
Limited. Agents were also appointed in London 
and an export trade was established with the 
United Kingdom where renewed interest in our 
product had been caused by Southern Rhodesia 
tobacco exhibited at the Empire Exhibition at 
Wembley in 1924. 

The publicity gained at this exhibition also 
attracted many new settlers to the Colony and 
resulted in increased tobacco production, which 
rose from 2-4 million lbs. in 1925 to 5 -6 million 
lbs. in 1926, followed by 19-2 million lbs. and 
24-9 million lbs. in 1927 and 1928 respectively. 
The increase in rebate allowed under the Imperial 
Preferential Tariff, from one-sixth to one-quarter 
of the full Import Duty or a preference of 2s. Od. 
per lb. of tobacco, was another factor responsible 
for the rapid increase in production. 

Another reason for the expansion of the 
industry was the establishment of the Imperial 
Tobacco Company of Great Britain and Ireland 
in the Colony during the year 1927. The 
company erected a modern warehouse fully 
equipped to handle all tobacco purchased by 
them for shipment direct to the United Kingdom. 

As the industry expanded and the proportion 
of growers operating independently of the co- 
operative organisation increased, the formation 




Tobacco barn and furnaces. 



of a representative body became essential and 
the Rhodesia Tobacco Association was formed 
in 1928. Membership was at first voluntary, but 
since October, 1933, it has been compulsory 
and the Rhodesia Tobacco Association is now 
fully representative of all sections of Virginia 
tobacco growers in the Colony, and it is financed 
from the Tobacco Levy Fund. The executive 
of the association is composed of members 
elected by tobacco growers in each area into 
which the country has been sub-divided for 
electoral purposes. The Rhodesia Tobacco 
Association has been instrumental in securing 
legislative and other measures found necessary 
for the welfare and progress of the industry. 
The association is directly represented on the 
Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing Board 
and on the Tobacco Research Board. 

A similar organisation — the Southern Rhodesia 
Turkish Tobacco Society — representing the 
interests of growers of Turkish type tobacco 
was formed in 1943. Legislation for the control 
of production and the sale of Turkish tobacco 
was drafted along lines similar to those of the 
Marketing Act introduced by the Virginia 
tobacco industry. 



MARKETING 

UNTIL 1925 THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
the industry was one of simple expansion, 
for up to that year production had been governed 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pac;u I4 1 ' 




mm* 



TOBACCO AUCTIONS LTD. 

TOBACCO LEAF AUCTIONEERS AND WAREHOUSEMEN 

_ , . , "inrTIONS" Telephone 22533 

PO Box 523 Telegrams: AUWluns 

SALISBURY - SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



$c Company Himiteb 

TOBACCO LEAF 

MERCHANTS and IMPORTERS 



IBEX HOUSE, MINORIES, 
LONDON. E.C.3, ENGLAND 

Cables : 
'MAKKANBAC. ALD, LONDON' 



P.O. Box 9S0. SALISBURY 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA 

Cables ; 

■MAKKANBAC, SALISBURY' 



SouTHtRN Rhodesia. 1890- 



PM3E 150 



almost entirely by the demands of the market 
in the Union of South Africa. Endeavours made 
to develop the United Kingdom market proved 
abortive. A revival in exports from this Colony 
to the United Kingdom was caused by the 
favourable publicity gained by Southern Rhodesia 
tobacco exhibited at the Wembley Exhibition 
held in 1924- A trial shipment, on a com- 
mercial scale, was exported to Great Britain in 
1925 and, owing to the establishment of this 
market for Southern Rhodesia tobacco, crop 
production increased accordingly. Since then 
other outlets have been developed, but fully 
two-thirds of the crop is exported to the United 
Kingdom which continues to be not only the 
principal market for Southern Rhodesia tobacco 
but has also the greatest potentialities for further 
expansion as a market for our product. 

The system of selling tobacco has changed 
periodically and the methods adopted have 
included sale by private treaty, under contract, 
sealed tender and by public auction. As stated 
previously, auction sales were introduced in 
1910 after sale by private treaty had proved 
disappointing then, owing to disagreement 
between sellers and buyers the auctions were 
discontinued in 1914 and co-operative marketing 
under contract took the place of auction sales. 
The Rhodesia Tobacco Co-operative Society 
(registered) and later the Rhodesia Tobacco 
Warehouse and Export Company Limited, con- 
tinued to sell tobacco under contract to the two 
leading manufacturing firms in the Union of 
South Africa. After a trial shipment in 1925, 
the Rhodesia Tobacco Warehouse and Export 
Company Limited, in the following year exported 
fairly large shipments of tobacco to the United 
Kingdom. In 1927 the company allowed the 
contracts with the Union manufacturers to lapse, 
with one exception, and at the same time intro- 
duced sales locally by sealed tender and later, by 
private treaty. Marketing by sealed tender was 
a failure. 

In 1928 public auction sales were re-introduced 
but proved abortive owing to the small number 
of buyers and lack of competition and this 
method was discontinued after the second sale. 
The system of selling by private treaty became 
more firmly established than ever in 1927, when 
a warehouse was erected by the Imperial Tobacco 
Company (of Great Britain and Ireland), Limited, 
and the number of tobacco buyers' operating 
in the Colony also increased. 

The sale of tobacco to the Union of South 
Africa was considerably changed in 1930, when 
the Union imposed an import duty on Southern 
Rhodesia tobacco in excess of a quota 2 million 
lbs. Virginia and 400,000 lbs. Turkish type 
tobacco allowed in duty-free. Since 1931 the 
quantity of Southern Rhodesia tobacco allowed 
duty-free into the Union in any quota-year has 
been determined in advance by the Union 
Tobacco Control Board, which also fixes the 
minimum price at which such tobacco must be 



purchased in Southern Rhodesia. The quota 
has not remained constant, but the figures have 
altered each year according to the tobacco crop 
prospects in the Union. The general trend was 
towards reducing the imports of our tobacco 
into the Union and, as already stated, the Turkish 
tobacco quota was cancelled soon after its 
introduction. After the outbreak of World 
War II, however, the quota for Virginia type 
tobacco was increased owing to the increased 
demand and to reduced crop production caused 
by unfavourable seasonal conditions. The 
duty-free quota for the year 1944-45 was 10 
million lbs. dry weight. The previous record 
export to the Union was 8 million lbs. shipped 
in 1929 in anticipation of the restriction to be 
imposed on the importation of Southern 
Rhodesia tobacco. Since 1945 the annual 
quotas for duty free tobacco have been 
respectively: — 1-i- million lbs., 3 million lbs., 
5 million lbs., and nil during the past two years. 

The Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Control 
Board, afterwards re-named the Southern Rho- 
desia Tobacco Board, was formed to administer 
the Union quota and apportion the quantities 
of leaf sold to the Union manufacturers at 
prices arranged under contract. The Board 
also controlled the sale of locally produced 
tobacco to manufacturers in the Colony. 



PHENOMENAL INCREASE 

FURTHER RE-ORGANISATION OF THE 
industry became necessary because of a 
phenomenal increase in the production of 
Virginia type tobacco, when the output rose from 
2-4 million lbs. in 1925 to 5-6 million lbs. in 
1926; 19-2 million lbs. in 1927, and 24 -9 
million lbs. in 1928. The market was glutted 
with accumulated stocks of Southern Rhodesia 
tobacco and in order to relieve the position 
legislation was introduced at the request of the 
tobacco growers. First there was the "Tobacco 
Reserve Pool Act, 1934", which provided for the 
compulsory pooling of all Virginia type tobacco 
which was surplus to existing market require- 
ments. This proved but a temporary expedient, 
and in 1934 an advisory committee, which 
came to be known as the "Tobacco Quota 
Committee", was appointed by Government for 
the purpose of regulating production and 
stabilising the industry. The committee was 
appointed at the request of the tobacco growers 
and functioned for two years, determining the 
basic production quota for each grower and 
dealing with applications from new growers 
wishing to enter the industry. The recommenda- 
tions made by the committee resulted in some 
improvement but a greater measure of success 
would have been attained if the basic quota 
had been calculated on an average production 
over three years instead of the one year, 1934, 
fixed by the tobacco growers representatives. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 151 



Following on this came the Tobacco Marketing 
Act, chapter 166, promulgated in 1936 and 
which has been amended to meet new conditions 
as they occurred in the industry. In its main 
provisions the Act ensures control over pro- 
duction by providing for the registration of 
tobacco growers and empowering the Minister 
of Agriculture, in consultation with the repre- 
sentatives of the industry, to fix minimum prices 
for proclaimed markets, to regulate and control 
crop production, and to control the sale and 
export of prescribed types or varieties of tobacco 
in the Colony. The sale of tobacco is controlled 
by the Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing 
Board appointed under this Act for the purpose 
of determining market requirements, licensing 
of commercial graders, buyers, and auction 
floors, disposal of surplus tobacco, development 
of new markets and generally supervising the 
sale of tobacco as defined in the Act. No 
Virginia flue-cured or dark fire-cured tobacco 
may be sold in the Colony other than over the 
auction floors, except with the written permission 
of the Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing 
Board. Growers, however, are free to consign 
their own tobacco direct to markets other than 
the Union of South Africa and the local market. 



TOBACCO AUCTION FLOORS 

THERE ARE TWO TOBACCO AUCTION 
floors, the first owned by the Rhodesia 
Tobacco Warehouse and Export Company, 
Limited, and operated by the Tobacco Producers 
Floor, Limited; and the second owned and 
operated by the Tobacco Auctions, Limited. 
Owing to the expansion in crop production the 
establishment of a third auction floor is at present 
under active consideration and building opera- 
tions will probably be completed within the next 
three years. The floors employ their own trained 
staff but all auction sales must be conducted in 
accordance with the rules laid down by the 
Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing Board 
in consultation with the owners of the auction 
floors, buyers and producers. The Board's 
Sales Supervisors are present at every sale 
throughout the selling season which opens in 
April and closes towards the end of September 
or early October. 

The Board also employs a number of classifiers 
for the classification of the tobacco immediately 
after sale in order to analyse the crop according 
to grade and quality. 

In addition to those already mentioned there 
are a number of commercial grading warehouses 
and packing plants in Salisbury. There are also 
co-operative and commercial grading warehouses 
situated at convenient centres in the principal 
tobacco producing districts. 



The number of tobacco factories in the Colony 
has increased in recent years. The products of 
these factories are manufactured principally for 
local European and native consumption but a 
rapidly increasing export trade in tobacco and 
cigarettes is developing with neighbouring terri- 
tories. Limited quantities are also exported to 
overseas markets. 



PRODUCTION 

A RAINFALL OF 25 TO 30 INCHES IS 
sufficient for the production of Virginia 
type tobacco, provided the rain is well distributed 
throughout the growing season. Generally the 
required rainfall is attained in the majority of 
the districts where the soil is also suitable. 
Consequently there are very large areas in the 
Colony eminently suitable for tobacco culture. 

Turkish type tobacco requires less rain than 
Virginia tobacco and is best suited to the drier 
areas of Southern Rhodesia. 

Tobacco can be grown on almost any soil, 
provided it is well drained, fertile, and the 
climatic conditions are favourable; but the 
various types of tobacco must be planted on 
soils best suited to the class of leaf desired, in 
order to secure optimum results. In this Colony 
tobacco cultivation is generally confined to 
three types of soil, viz., sandy loams of granitic 
or sandstone origin; "contact" soils, which are 
found where granite and epidiorite, or dolerite, 
granite and banded ironstone, granite and schist, 
or sandstone and basalt are in contact; or on 
clay loams which are derived from epidiorite, 
banded ironstone or schist. The greater portion 
of the acreage under tobacco is planted on the 
sandy loam soils of granitic or sandstone origin. 
These soils comprise approximately 50 per cent 
of the total area of the Colony, and vary in 
colour from white, grey, pink to light red, and 
are sometimes black where highly impregnated 
with organic matter. The "contact" soils also 
are sandy loams, but are finer in texture, more 
fertile and produce heavier yields of tobacco. 
The soils derived entirely from epidiorite, iron- 
stone or schist are usually red in colour, and 
may be generally classed as clay loams suitable 
for Virginia dark fire-cured and heavy air-cured 
and sun-cured leaf whereas the sandy loams are 
best suited for the production of bright flue- 
cured light air-cured and sun-cured Virginia and 
sun-cured Turkish tobacco. 

The principal tobacco-producing districts 
are: — Lomagundi, Mazoe, Salisbury, Marandel- 
las, Mrewa, Makoni, Charter, Hartley and 
Umtali, and the acreage planted with Virginia 
Tobacco, flue-cured, were during 1947/48 as 
follows:— Lomagundi 24,989; Mazoe 16,823; 
Salisbury 16,429; Marandellas 11,701; Mrewa 
4,869; Makoni 15,491; Charter 2,057 ; Hartley 
8,303; Umtali 8,307. During the same season, 
the acreage planted with Turkish Tobacco was: — 



Page 152 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Lomagundi 2,909; Mazoe 407; Salisbury 294; 
Marandellas 89; Mrewa 140; Makoni 195; 
Charter 39; Hartley 197 ; Umtali 40. 

For the control of tobacco disease and pests 
the Tobacco Pest Suppression Act, Chapter 169, 
was introduced in 1933 and remains in operation 
in suitably amended form. In the main this Act 
makes provision for the removal of tobacco plants 
from the field after harvesting and also for the 
disinfection of warehouses and buildings twice 
yearly. 

Under the Tobacco Marketing Act, growers 
of Virginia type tobacco are required to apply 
for registration each year. The number of 
growers registered during 1936— the year when 
this Act was first promulgated— was 486 while 
the number registered for the present season is 
2148 growers. The number of Turkish tobacco 
growers registered in terms of the Turkish 
Tobacco Act during the current season is 583. 

Technical advice and assistance required by 
the industry since its inception has been furnished 
by Government through a staff of specialists 
employed in the Department of Agriculture. 
Technical articles dealing with all phases of 
tobacco culture are published in the Rhodesia 
Agricultural Journal for the advice and instruction 
of tobacco growers. 

In the initial stages of the industry tobacco 
growing experiments were conducted on a 
co-operative basis between the Department of 
Agriculture and certain farmers in the tobacco 
producing areas. The Department also con- 
ducted some experiments for a year or two at 
Lochard near Bulawayo and at Stapleford a few- 
miles from Salisbury. The first fully equipped 
and properly organised tobacco experiment 
station in Southern Rhodesia was established at 
Hillside, on Salisbury Town Commonage, in 
September, 1924. The programme of experi- 
ments was designed to furnish local data and 
elucidate problems relative to tobacco production 
in the Colony. Provision was also made for 
the practical training of students in tobacco 
culture and general farming during a two year 
course, after which the student might take up 
farming on his own account or become an 
assistant or farm manager. 

The experimental work conducted on the 
Tobacco Experiment Station formed the founda- 
tion on which tobacco research has been 
established first on the Tobacco Research 
Station, Marandellas, during 1930, and later on 
the Tobacco Research Station, Trelawney, in 
1934, followed by the Tobacco Experiment 
Stations at Karoi and Chipinga established in 
y 1946 and 1949 respectively. 

In 1935 a Tobacco Research Advisory Com- 
mittee was formed of members of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and representatives of the 
Rhodesia Tobacco Association and Tobacco 
Trade Section, Salisbury Chamber of Commerce. 
A more active participation in the work was 
evidenced by substantial financial contributions 
received from the Rhodesia Tobacco Association 
and the leading tobacco buyers and manu- 





Tobacco arriving at Salisbury from the TJmvukwes by 
the Railway Road Motor Services. 



facturers. Subsequently a Tobacco Research 
Trust Fund was established and the Government 
contributed a grant in aid on the £ for £ principle, 
up to a maximum of £5,000 per annum. On 
direct representations made to Government by 
the Rhodesia Tobacco Association and the 
Tobacco Trade Section the Tobacco Research 
Board appointed under the Tobacco Research 
Act, 1938, Chapter 168, took over full direction 
and control of tobacco research in the Colony. 
This arrangement continued until 1948 when 
control of all tobacco research was allowed to 
revert to the Department of Agriculture which 
had recently been completely re-organised. 

Government assistance to the Turkish tobacco 
industry includes the provision of an experiment 
station in Matabeleland. This Turkish Tobacco 
and Plant Breeding Station was opened at 
Umgusa, near Bulawayo, in September, 1943 and 
it is expected that the station will become the 
focal point of the tobacco industry in Matabele- 
land and serve to re-establish tobacco production 
in that province. Previously tobacco experi- 
ments had been conducted on the Matopos farm 
in 1926 and again in 1931. 

It is proposed to establish a Central Tobacco 
Research Station at Salisbury and several sub- 
stations in selected areas in the tobacco producing 
districts of the Colony as part of a plan for 
expanding tobacco research. The Rhodesia 
Tobacco Association has offered to finance 
research work confined to Virginia flue-cured 
and dark fire-cured tobacco during a rive-year 
period to the extent of some £60,000 per annum 
on the basis of £2 for every £ contributed by 
Government. 



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 

r-rHE TOBACCO CROP IS OF PRIMARY 

_L importance from both the agricultural and 

economic viewpoints. To-day it is the only crop 

which is capable of defraying the expenses in- 



Southbrn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 153 



curred in stumping and clearing virgin land, and 
is thus a dominating factor in the agricultural de- 
velopment of the Colony and in the post-war 
settlement of ex-servicemen and settlers on 
the land. 

The extent of the average tobacco farm is 
roughly 2,500 acres of which one-fourth com- 
prises arable land . Taking an average throughout 
the Colony, the acreage planted to flue-cured 
tobacco per farm is estimated to be 70 acres 
approximately. The acreage under dark fire- 
cured tobacco averages 35 acres per farm and 
on farms where Turkish type leaf is grown the 
average is 15 acres. 

Southern Rhodesia tobacco has been exported 
to practically every country in the world and 
to-day it is marketed in more than 30 countries. 
Great Britain is the principal market for our 
tobacco and its importance has been still further 
increased by the "London Agreement". 

This agreement made between the Tobacco 
Advisory Committee (representing the United 
Kingdom tobacco manufacturers) and the 
Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing Board 
(representing the Rhodesian tobacco producers) 
covers a period of five years commencing from 
the opening of the 1946 tobacco auction sales 
and subject to revision each year. Under the 
agreement it was arranged that the British 
manufacturers shall purchase each year during a 
five-year period two-thirds of the Southern 
Rhodesia flue-cured tobacco crop up to a 
70 million lb. crop. 

This contract coupled with the world shortage 
of tobacco made it necessary to introduce 
export control to ensure delivery of the allotted 
quotas to our priority markets. The Tobacco 
Marketing Act, Chapter 166, was suitably- 
amended to enable the granting of permits for 
specified markets. Import licences regulating 
United Kingdom manufacturers' purchases are 
issued by the Board of Trade in Great Britain. 
Export permit allocations are dealt with by a 
committee appointed by the Southern Rhodesia 
Tobacco Marketing Board. 



MB 




The United Kingdom, South Africa, and the 
Local Market were termed "priority" markets. 
A "preferential" allocation was made to an 
organisation which purchases considerable quan- 
tities of Southern Rhodesia tobacco for export 
each year. Markets other than the above were 
termed "non-priority" markets. After the 1948 
season Australia was added to the list of priority 
markets. 

In terms of the "London Agreemet" the 
Southern Rhodesia Tobacco Marketing Board 
was notified in July, 1948 by the Tobacco 
Advisory Committee that the Agreement would 
be extended for a further year, and that should 
the 1948/49 crop increase sufficiently, the 
United Kingdom manufacturers were prepared 
to purchase a further 15 to 20 million lbs. over 
and above the 46 millions originally agreed upon, 
provided prices and quality were satisfactory. 
It was subsequently agreed that the United 
Kingdom allocation be increased to a minimum 
of 56 million lbs. for 1949 and the four years 
following. 

Later the Southern Rhodesia Tobacco 
Marketing Board in consultation with the 
Government, Rhodesia Tobacco Association, 
and representatives of the Tobacco Advisory 
Committee, assured the British manufacturers 
that their annual allocation could be increased 
to 75 million lbs. by 1953. In order to fulfil this 
undertaking it is necessary that the flue-cured 
tobacco crop be increased to approximately 
1 20 million lbs in that year. 

In conclusion, the progress of the tobacco 
industry and its importance in the economic 
structure of the Colony is further illustrated by 
the following table showing the relative value 
of tobacco exports to the total value of agricultural 
crops exported from the country: — 

EXPORTS: AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 





Total Crops 


Tobacco 


Year 


Value 


Value 


Value 




£ 1,000 


£1,000 


per cent 


1923 


1,030 


154 


14-95 


1928 


1,830 


779 


42-57 


1933 


1,250 


479 


38-32 


1938 


2,280 


1,132 


49-65 


1943 


4,550 


2,492 


54-77 


1948 


15,220 


10,316 


67-78 



The Llangibby Castle at Pungwe Wharf, Beira, being 
loaded with Rhodesian tobacco. 



The economic importance of the tobacco 
industry will be considerably increased through 
further development, the rate of progress being 
dependent upon the success attending the 
efforts of the growers in producing an article 
which conforms to the standard required by the 
manufacturers and governed also by the ex- . 
pansion of present markets and the development 
of others. 



Page 154 



Southern Rhopfsia 1890-1950 




%OSa^^i HE DEVELOPMENT OF SPORT IN THE COLONY DURING ITS YOUNG LIFE 
/«2 1'YMz'&fJ'i of iust over 50 years is something of which sportsmen can he proud. That is a short 



■ "**%0S£?vq'9iI* economic anu civu mu, <mu urc v«« uulbi«a.o .»i.^.. .«.« ..w ~- ._.-.-— 
V^y^^^k transport, the development is all the more remarkable. It is doubtful whether any 

' > "'-'~ ? -- ; ' <v other community as small, or as remote, has achieved so much in so short a time. 

An indication of what the pioneers of sport did to foster all the various codes is given here in a brief 
summary with an idea of what exists to-day. 



HORSE RACING 

HORSE RACING HAS DEVELOPED 
from the early days — when as in any 
young and romantic country, races were 
run for the strangest stakes and incredulous 
wagers — into one of the most highly 
organised sports in the Colony. 

The first race meeting on record in the 
Colony, was held as early as 1889. A 
detachment of the Royal Horse Guards 
(The Blues) arrived at Gubulawayo (as it 
was then known) carrying a letter from 
Queen Victoria to Lobcngula, Chief of the 
Matabele, announcing the incorporation 
of the B.S.A. Company by Royal Charter, 
advising him to give his confidence and 
support to the Company. A race meeting 
was held in honour of the Queen's 
envoys and a fairly good course was laid 
out — with hurdles. All the Europeans 



BY 




Lt. Col. J. de L. THOMPSON, E D- 



entered those of their horses which had 
any pretensions to speed, and with the 
addition of some of the King's and the 
Indunas' horses, there was a creditable 
muster for the Zambesi Handicap, the 
Gubulawayo Plate and the two minor 
events that constituted the meeting. 
The racing was good and the King's 
horses won some of the stakes. Thousands 
of natives assembled to witness the 
white man's sport, buc beyond a few 

violent disputes tolerable order was kept. 
Thus the first race meeting in Rhodesia 
was held under Royal patronage! 

Main centres are at Bulawayo and 

Salisbury. In recent years stakes have 
been increased, and for big races, doubled. 
But, old-timers do not forget that two-day 
meeting in Bulawayo in 1895, at which 
over £2,400 passed through the totali-ator; 
while at a meeting in Salisbury in 1897 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 155 









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jrai\cisBan\eg) 



B.S.A. 



Page 156 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



the stakes amounted to €3,075. New Mood has been 
brought into the Colony- from the Union and Overseas, 
and Colony-owned horses have achieved some success 
beyond the borders of Rhodesia. Most of the smaller 
centres also hold regular meetings. 

Discussions have been held recently about the appoint- 
ment or a Stipendiary Steward, an appointment recom- 
mended by a commission held by the Jockey Club of 
South Africa. 

Plans have been discussed lor more and bigger improve- 
ments to the eourse in Bulawayo. A modern grandstand 
to seat 25,000 is visualised, also the building of an up-to- 
date totalizator— additional stabling for 150 horses, and 
so on. Estimated cost of the improvements is about 
£150,000. 



POLO 

pOLO IS PLAYED IN SOME CENTRES, NOTABLY 
L Salisbury and there are numerous hunt clubs and riding 
schools whose activities include riding through the 
Rhodcsian bush and visits to the many beauty spots which 
surround the towns. 



CRICKET 

'T'HIS SPORT HAS BEEN PLAYED IN THE COLONY 
A from the beginning of its occupation. The first bi<- 
representative game was in 1899 when Lord Hawke's team 
played two matches in Bulawayo, one against a local XI 
and the other against a R hodesia XI. The visitors won both 
easily. The Salisbury contingent for the Rhodesia match 
had a most eventful 10 days' journev. The coach had to 
be pulled out of a morass at Charter by a span of 30 oxen 
and they were then held up by the Hunyani River in 
flood. H. M. Taberer made contact with the other hank 
by throwing over a cricket ball with a line attached. A 
skip was constructed and the team conveyed across the 
rivet and taken to Bulawayo, by another coach, arriving 
lust before the hour of play. 

Three major leagues are catered for in Matabeleland 
and Mashonaland. The latter also runs a Country Districts 
League. Like tennis, cricket is played throughout the 
year — on a friendly basis in the winter months — when 
private clubs visit district teams. 

The game is taken seriously in the Colony, and an 
indication of this fact is that the Rhodcsian Cricket Union 
has agreed to have six English coaches this season. Their 
campaign will be split between the schools and the clubs. 

Rhodesia is concentrating on its younger players. No 
great successes have been achieved on inter-provincial 
tours, though many important mutches have been lost by 
the narrowest margins. 

The transition from matting to che new type of turf 
wicket has been accomplished, and the vounger players 
have adapted themselves to the new conditions. Com- 




An incident in the match between M.C.C. and Rhodesia 
on the Salisbury Sports Club Ground in February, 1949. 
Percy Mansell of Bulawayo is seen juggling with a 
difficult catch from the M.C.C. captain, F. G. Mann. 
He failed to hold this catch but had made up for it 
previously by taking a magnificent one-handed catch 
at slips to dismiss Bedser. The other plaver in the 
photograph is Hugh Tayfield of Salisbury. 



menting on the scandard of play by the Colony's school- 
boys — the only unbeaten side in a recent Nuffield Intcr- 
Provincial Shield tournament in the Union, Dave Nourse 
emphasised that "some brilliant players were revealed". 
Last year a new Nuffield record of 125, not out, was made 
by a Plumtree schoolboy- 
Rhodesia drew both matches in 1930 and in 1939 against 
the M.C.C. and also one against Australia in 1936, but last 
year were soundly beaten by Australia. Rhodesia is 
gaining prominence as a cricketing country, and there is 
still hope here that a Test will be played in one of the 
main centres. 



SPEEDWAY RACING 

ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR OF THE NEWLY 
organised sports is motor-cycle racing. The sport in 
all centres draws the most thousands. Inter-town meetings 
are held regularly and records are being broken at most of 
them as the newer and more powerful machines arc 
reaching the Colony's markets. Some of the riders are 
recognised as the best in Southern Africa to-dav, notably 
Charlie Harrison and Colin Graves. In the P.E. "200", 
the Union's biggest race, the main places were gained by 
Rhodesian riders, and another of the team put up the 
fastest time for the exacting 9}-mile circuit — just under 
92 m.p.h. 




-<~— ~1*> — -.-— xJL ' ii!lF~ 



At Bulawayo, when Rhodesia beat the All Blacks in 
July, 1949. Rhodesia converts her second try. 



RUGBY 

RHODESIA FALLS LITTLE BEHIND THE UNION 
in her enthusiasm for the Rugby code. 
The first game of football in Rhodesia was a rugby 
match which took place in the bed of the Shashi River. 
By some error the Pioneers got it into their heads that it 
was the Tuli River, and so called their camp Fort Tuli. 
The game was played on July 5, 1890. The date is fixed 
because it was on the next day that Troop 'B" of the 
Pioneers started cutting the road to Mount Hampden, a 
day that is commemorated annually on the Rhodes' and 
Founders' holidays. 

The field selected for the game was a patch of 
heavy sand in the river bed. No one was hurt, for 
the game was very slow, with the men toiling labori- 
ously after each other through the sand. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 157 



The Pioneer Corps contained some line players. The 
past has produced a number of stars well known through- 
out the hemisphere. A peak was reached in 1949 when the 
New Zealand XV played here. The All Blacks left the 
Colony without a win; they were beaten in Bulawayo 
and forced to he satisfied with a draw in Salisbury. 
As a result of those matches two Rhodesians were 
included in the Second Test in South Africa, and one 
of them was selected for the Third and Fourth Tests. 

Hartsfield, the Matabclelnnd Board's Ground is one of 
(he finest in Africa, and steps arc being taken to increase 
the number of seats (here. 



SHOOTING 

SHOOTING HAS ALWAYS BEEN ONE OF 
Rhodesia's favourites though with the movement of 
big game away from the towns it has fewer followers than 
in the past. New ranges have been built, and there arc 
still those whose performances can compare well with any 
shots in the world. The names of Rhodesian shots as 
individuals, and teams, are written in most of the record 
files. As recently as 1948 some of the highest scores 
made at the South African National Bisley were by 
members of Rhodesian platoons. Rhodesia gained second 
and third places in the Governor's Cup and the highest 
score in the King's Medal was by a Bulawayo shot. These 
1948 performances, however, are not Rhodesians' best 
efforts. In 1904 Captain A. C. L. Webb, of the Southern 
Rhodesia Volunteers team that competed in the Transvaal 
Bisley, won the grand aggregate. In 1905 his brother then 
still a cadet of St. George's also made the highest score, 
and won several trophies. In 1906 Trooper D. Drummond 



won the highest individual honours when he annexed 
the Lieutenant-Governor's Cup. As it is hoped to send 
a Rhodesian team to the English Bisley, this year, ii is 
timely to look back to the Colony's first visit in 1902, 
when Rhodesia gained second place in the Kolapotc Cup. 



ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL 

ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL WAS FIRST PLAYED 
in Rhodesia by members of the Pioneer Column soon 
after their arrival at Fort Salisbury at the end of 1890. 
Conspicuous among the early players were Charlie Hall, 
Cooper Hodgson, Bill Strachan, Bly Hopley, Willie 
Grimmer, Joe Clinton, Spreckley. who represented 
Johannesburg in 1889 and P. C. ("Sally") Nunn, who was 
killed with Allan Wilson in 1893. The first clubs were 
Police, Kopje, and Causeway, the two latter eventually 
changing their names to Alexandra and Salisbury respect- 
ively. 

Salisbury's nearest rival was Unitali, 170 miles distant, 
and though the only means of transport was by mule 
coach, there were frequent intcr-town matches. In 1899 
the Umtali side included Harry Allen of Derby County, 
Reg Elkin of Middlesex and his brother Syd, Watty Ross, 
Tom and Jim Gilbert, Jimmy Hendry, W. Bennett. J. H. 
Davidson and Thos. Eickhoff. 

Prominent early players in Bulawayo were Magnus 
Spcncc, Howitt, Wilkinson, Stewart, Katinakis, Knight, 
H. Agar, Davy Bruce, Currie and Cameron, all of the 
B.S.A.P. Queens had an imposing array in Harrison 
(capped for England), Halsey, J. Collyer (late Postmaster- 
General,) Charles and Bob Granger, C. H. Blanckcnbcrg, 



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OFFICIAL TICKET SELLERS S. RHODESIA STATE LOTTERY 



Pace 158 



Southern Riiomsia 1890-1950 




J. Small, a promising Rhodesian boxer, in action. 



G. M. Tait and D. E. Williams. B.A.C. stalwarts were 
T. and A. Roy, M. G. Linnel, Reg Payne, A. Ruxton, 
Hallward, Routledge, E. W. Clarkson (Surrey), Loosley 
and T. H. Cooke. In che Rhodesia Scottish team were 
MacArthur, Dunbar, McKenrie and Burnett. 

Soccer, though it has not shown the improvement 
expected since the war despite the influx ot immigrants 
irom llie United Kingdom, is able to field a strong repre- 
sentative team. Considerable success has been achieved 

and enthusiasts still talk of the way a Rhodesian side held 

the Clyde to dtaw in Bulawayo- 

Trophies for inter-club, inter-town and inter-provincial 
tournaments abound. The code has suffered many 
reverses, and one of its majot difficulties is that the senior 
schools of the Colony do not include the sport on their 

programme. It has been able to keep going because of 
the encouragements given by touring teams from oversea 
and the Union, and the enthusiasm, of" the local clubs. 
All the grounds are under turf, and each centre has both 
senior and junior leagues. The support given to the code 
is increasing, and capacity crowds attend most of the big 
matches. Last year three Bulawayo players, Wood, 
Paxton and Van Vuuren, were selected by U.K. clubs 
and latest reports about them are encouraging. 

t,\ * * * * 

WATER SPORTS 

THE WATER SPORTS ARE NATURALLY PLACED 
high in the scale of popularity, and in all of them, 

considerable progress has been made by the Colony. 

SWIMMING 

Much is being absorbed of the newer and more scientific 
training methods and nowhere is this more evident than 
in che training of the Colony's swimming talent. There 
has always been an inner circle of good men and women, 
and local competition has produced young swimmers like 

Greenshields who won the men's 100 yards championship 

of South Africa in 1948, Miss Bennett who gained a place 



in the women's 680 yards freestyle and young Stott who 
smashed his way thtough the Rhodesian records and won 
the 220 yards breast-stroke in South Africa. Another boy, 
M. Flint, holds the boys' 100 yards South African title. 

Rhodesians through the years have figured prominently 
in South African championships, the earliest winner being 
J. T. Brown, ]00 yards in 1920, and again in 1921. Freddie 

Flint, Len Brown and C. N. Foster, are others. In 1935 

Foster created new South African records for the 500 yards 

and half-mile distances. And now wc arc looking to Ann 
Webb and Beryl Nugent to do greater thigs. 



WATER POLO 

WATER POLO IS POPULAR AND MANY GIANTS 
of the game have been trained in the Colony. 

Rhodesia gained second place in the log in the 1949 

intcrprovincial Carrie Cup tournament. 



YACHTING 

YACHTING, THE YOUNGEST WATER SPORT TO 
enter the competitive arena, is engaged in, on all the 

Colony's bigger dams and recently a team from Mashonn- 
land entered the Union's major regatta. 



CYCLING 

THE COLONY'S CYCLISTS HAVE BEEN IN THE 
top class for many years, and have held several 

South African national records. Latest names to 

be added to the long list, is that of E. Evans who smashed 
the mile scratch time with a ride of 58-2 seconds, 

Branfield for whom records are onlv times to be bettered, 
and Bennett. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 159 



THE MOST UP-TO-DATE 
WORKSHOP IN THE 
EASTERN DISTRICTS 



LIBERTY 
MOTORS 

Citroen Cars 
Austin Cars & Trucks 



SPEED AND EFFIENCY 
Our Motto 



Day and Night Service 



Agents for : 

REZENTONE RADIOS 
RADIOGRAMS and 
TABLE MODELS 



VICTORY AVENUE and FIRST STREET 

UMT ALI 

Telephone 603 W>. Box 122 



We have pleasure in announcing 
THE DAVID BROWN AGRICILTIRAL 
TRACTORS WITH HYDRAULIC 
POWER LIFT ATTACHMENTS 

ENGINE — 33 Brake Horse-power 
DRAWBAR — 25 Horse-power. 

The equipment offered as standard with each tractor com- 
prises : 

(a) FRONT AND REAR LIGHTING. 

(b) 6 VOLT GENERATOR AND STARTING SYSTEM. 

(c) TWO SPEED POWER TAKE-OFF WITH 8-INCH 

CROWNED PULLEY. 

(d) SIX SPEED GEAR BOX. 

(e) HYDRAULIC POWER MECHANISM ON THE "UNIT 

LIFT" PRINCIPLE. 
(1) ALL TRACTORS AND IMPLEMENTS ARE FULLY 
COVERED WITH SPARE PARTS HELD IN SALIS- 
BURY AND EFFICIENT AFTER-SALES SERVICE 
ATTENTIONS BY SKILLED PERSONNEL FORM A 
PRIMARY FEATURE OF THIS ORGANISATION. 



RUSSELL NEWBURY DIESEL ENGINES 
and GENERATING SETS. 
WELCO HAMMER MILLS. 

SANGUS DEEP WELL TURBINE PUMPS. 
NATIONAL PUMPS. 

IRRIGATION EQUIPMENT OF ALL TYPES. 



Sole Concessionaires in the Rhodesias : 

BENNETT AND WEBB, LIMITED, 

P.O. Box 806. SALISBURY 

Sole Concessionaires in Nyasaland: 

BENNETT AND WEBB (Nyasaland). LTD. 

P.O. Box 239. BLANTYRE 

I 



Page 160 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



ATHLETICS 

IN THE ATHLETrC FIELD ALSO, YOUNG 
Rhodesians are coming to the fore- In every school 
sports meeting during the last two years new records 
have been established. A big new development was the 

inauguration of inter-school championships in Matabele- 
land and also of the Rhodesia junior championships. 
There remains a great deal to be done in the way of en- 
couraging the younger athletes to go forward into the 
wider competitive field, though this is not the case with 

our young cyclists. 



ANGLING 

THE RHODESIAN ANGLING SOCIETY CATERS 
for nearly 12,000 fishermen. The Society is constantly 
restocking the Colony's dams with fish of all types. In 
six months, 9,000 Bass were added. Junior members are 
encouraged, and a special trophy has been donated for 
them. One of the best results last season was a bag of 
140 lb. of Carp. The fishing rights are protected. 



HOCKEY 

HOCKEY IS A SPORT IN WHICH RHODESIANS 
count for a great deal in South Africa. In this field, 

the Colony can hold its own with the best, and beat most 
of the Union's teams in both sections. 

The South African inter-provincial tournament has been 
won by our women, and in the men's section Rhodesia in 
1929 won the top position in the log. Visiting reams have 





Miss Valierie 



Retief, Rhodes-ian 
Champion. 



Women's Diving 



been glad to play on the Colony's hockey pitches, and the 
Swallows were the first oversea team to visit the Colony. 

They left with the honours even- 

Those matches led io C. V. Irvine's selection as the 
first Rhodcsian Springbok captain. The first Rhodesian, 
however, to win Springbok honours was Miss R. du Pree: 
in (930. 



B 



Miss Gw-endy Love, one of the coming Rhodesian 
singles and doubles players, holds the junior champion- 
ship of the Western Province, 



BOXING 

OXING IS ANOTHER SPORT WHICH COMMANDS 
big following. 

Among the early pioneers were numerous boxers of 
repute. Bulitwnyo boasted three boxing stadiums. An 
amusing paragraph in The Btilaivayo Chronicle after Chrisc- 
mas, 1895, reads "Several pugilistic encounters came off at 
the holidays, one of which went into 80 rounds, but 

none were of special interest!" A colourful fighter and a 

very popular one, was Piet Stcyn, then there was Fred 
Buckland and Harry Price. Among the early amateurs of 
note were Pat Bland, W. P. T. Hancock, W. C. Hoaten, 
and Stanley Perry. Between World Wars I and II were 
Pat Kealy, J. Ashwin, N. A. S. Hoffman, I. P. Potgieter, 
C. Brissett, Len Hall, A. E. Walters, and W. Fulton. 
Some of the strongest South African teams have been 
beaten recently by Rhodesian teams, and as in the past, 
South African title holders arc among the ranks of the 
Colony's boxers. Present hopes arc centred on Verceuil, 
Small and King (N.R.), and the former is being carefully 
warched by S.A. Empire Games contestants. 



SOUTHERN Rhodesia. 1890-1950 



Pace 161 



GOLF 

THE COLONY'S GOLF COURSES HAVE BEEN 
surveyed by experts from oversea and are improving 
every year. Bobby Locke recently stated that Bulawayo's 
course was on the way to becoming as good as any in 
South Africa. The number of people playing golf is 
increasing, and the standard of play has greatly improved. 

Young golfers have been well to the front, and one 
junior has recently won one of the Colony's major tourna- 
ments. Standard scratches are coming down, mainly 
because of performances of this kind, though due in no 
small measure to the improvement in the courses themselves. 



TENNIS 

TENNIS IS ONE OF THE SPORTS FLAYED ALL THE 
year round. It gained early popularity among the 
curly settlers because of its simple equipment nnd the 
easy preparation of hard courts, there being no grass 
courts in Rhodesia. The first court was laid at Fort 
Victoria in 1893 by the enterprising proprietor of the 
Standard Hotel. 

Among the Colony's outstanding players were: F. G. 
Brooks, Sir Percy Fynn, W. S. Tabercr, Andrew Ross. 
Ralph Vincent, C. V. Irvine, Mrs. S. J. Oliphant, Mrs. 
Griffin, Mrs. J. H. Kennedy, Mrs. J. G. Jeary. New hopes 
are Miss Black, Gwendy Love, Kate and Miss Bowyer. 
Matabeleland followed Mashonaland's lead and last year 
organised a winter league. 



The winter league has proved popular, but difficulty is 
that many of our soccer players and rugger players are also 
ardent tennis players, and they find it difficult to keep 
more than one spore going during any one season. That 
is the trouble with many Rhodesian sportsmen. 
There arc too few specialists. Too few go in for that 
kind of intensive training which marks out the champion 
from the all rounder. The Rhodesian is no worse for that, 

in fnct, ninny or the nil rounders have gained honours in 
more than one sport. 

Like some of the other sports, tennis has suffered from 
lack of sufficient oversea coaches. In any sport where 
the local champions (and in Rhodesia the champions 
are the same year after year) coach the coming players, 
there tends to be developed a stereotyped player whose 

game is not versatile enough to compete with the different, 

and more up-to-date game of players in the Union and 
elsewhere, who have gained much from oversea experience. 

On the other hand, there are those in Rhodesia to-day 
who hold honours gained on the South African courts. 
Miss Gwendy Love, one of the coming Rhodesian singles 
and doubles players holds the junior championship of the 

Western Province. Mrs. Bowyer captured the Griqualand 

singles title two years ago. 



BILLIARDS AND SNOOKER 

BILLIARDS AND SNOOKER ARE TWO OF THE 
more popular indoor sports. Local leagues exist in 
most centres, though the need of a wider organisation is 
now being felr. Povall, a Bulawayo player, recently just 
tailed to gain both championships in South Africa, one, 
only after a play-off against the South African champion. 



STEEL BODIES 
for all types of chassis 

* 

CARAVANS 
* 

PASSENGER 

BUSES 

* 

FARM TRAILERS 

* 

WATER TRAILERS 
/ 

BODIES 

for 

COMMERCIAL 

and 

FARM VEHICLES 



M ASHIIAIAN I 

i m: i »i 1 1 ii 1 1 s 

proudly report that 

the installation of Modern Machinery, 

their experience and practical interest in the 

requirements of the Rhodesias, 

their willingness to co-operate, 

AND ABOVE ALL 

THEIR INSISTENCE ON FIRST CLASS 

WORKMANSHIP 

have enubled 

THE MASHONALAND COACHBUILDERS 

to advance to leadership. 

Phone 24309 P.O. Box 572 SALISBURY 



SCOTCH CARTS 

WATER CARTS 
* 

PANEL 

BEATING 

WELDERS 

* 

RADIATOR 
REPAIRS 

* 

BLACKSMITHS 
* 

S PRINGS MITHS 
* 

SPRAY 

PAINTING 
* 

WHEELWRIGHTS 
* 

WAGON 
BUILDERS 



Pace 161 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



BOWLING 

BOWLERS ARE WELL CATERED FOR AND SOME 
of rhe greens are all an enthusiast would expect after 
nearly fifty years of hard work has been put into them. 
Rhodcsians have excelled in both men's and women's 
inter-provincial tournaments in the Union, and active 
members in the Colony's clubs run into some thousands. 



BASEBALL AND BADMINTON 

npWO OTHER SPORTS, BASEBALL (AND ITS 
J- sister Softball) and Badminton, have formed associa- 
tions. Both are growing in popularity and once these 
associations affiliate with the South they can reach out 
into the inter/provincial sphere. Visits from South African 
teams have already been made and much experience gained 
by local enthusiasts. 



BASKETBALL AND WE1GHTLIFTING 

BASKETBALL AND WEIGHTHFT1NG ARE TWO 
other of the younger sports. The R.A.F. stationed in 
the Colony has given a big impetus to the former which 
is also played in some of the senior schools. 

Weightlifters are an enthusiastic crowd and champion- 
ships have been held in the provinces and Northern Rho- 
desia. With a constant gain in experience new records 
are being made, and it will not be long before the Colony 
will be offering a more direct challenge to South Africa 
and further afield. OxdenWillows will represent Rhodesia 
at the Empire Games. 



Enthusiasts of other forms of sport than those mentioned 
in this summary are finding that Rhodesia is a sportsman's 
paradise. But the most important fact which is steadily 
emerging from the Colony's development along all lines 
is that there is a more definite movement towards affiliation 
with parent bodies, both within the Colony itself, and 
with those whose headquarters arc in the Union and 
oversea. This widening of the Colony's sporting life will 
ensure Rhodesia's part in future international touts, and 
lay the foundation for further experience in both the playing 
and in the administration of the games. 

A team of Southern Rhodesians is competing at the 
Empire Games representing five sports — athletics, boxing, 
cycling, swimming and wcightlifting; and it would not 
be surprising if one title, possibly boxing, comes to the 
Colony. 

This is not the first time Rhodesian green has been seen 
at this contest. Sufficient evidence exists to make us 
confident, that with new blood, and more up-to-date 
training methods, and with more outside competition, 
Rhodesian sportsmen should soon be ready to hold their 
own with any in the world. 





ERIC CROSS SPORTS LTD. 

of First Street, Salisbury 



/ 






(/K QSOC Op 
have contributed to this since 19&2> 




Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 163 




Minister of Finance and Officials 
supervising draw. 



I 




Officials checking balls into drums. 



I 




The Broadcasiing and Press Teams. 




7955 



_ 1950 



57 lotteries in 15 years 

Rhodesia nearly U million pounds sterling The J^tees 
have qiven Jarqe sums of this money to combating 
BUharzS by research, and the building swimming 
baVhs in the Colony wherever a local authority has been 
found to maintain one. Child Welfare has received 
support from the Lottery. Children's Nursing and Con- 
vaSscent Homes have been built. Holiday Camps have 
been helped and aid has been given to various o a 
undertakings for the European, Coloured and African 
commuS Also individual medical distress octave 
been given assistance. Prize money to date has totalled 
about % million pounds sterMngcmd to reprints 70 /« 
of the face value of all tickets included in the draw, which 
is one of the highest percentages in the world. 

TICKETS OBTAINABLE FROM ALL OFFICIAL SELLERS. 

"THE WHEELS OF FORTUNE." 




Some ol Ihe audience watching the 

draw in the S'ate Lotteries Hall. 

Salisbury. 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA 
STATE LOTTERIES 



Page 164 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1 



\ 



UNION-CASTLE 











the union-castle line offers luxurious passenger 
accommodation and fast Cargo services to Southamp- 
ton i'rom Durban, East London, Port Elizabeth and 
Cape Town, with calls at Madeira or Las Palmas. 
There is also an Intermediate Service from South & 
East African Ports to England via St. Helena, 
Ascension and Canary Islands or via Suez Canal. 



FAST 

MAIL PASSENGER 
& CARGO SERVICES 

SOUTH & EAST AFRICA 
tmd ENGLAND 



UNION-CASTLE 



LINE 



HEAD OFFICE: 3 FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON, E.C.3. 

S. & E. AFRICAN OFFICES AT CAPE TOWN. PORT ELIZABETH. EAST LONDON. 

DURBAN, JOHANNESBURG, LOURENCO MARQUES, BEIRA AND MOMBASA. 

AGENTS THROUGHOUT AFRICA. 



Southern Rhodesia 189C-1950 



Paol 1 




When in Bnlawavo . . . 

your comfort is assured ii you stay at the 
Palace Hotel. The Palace is centrally 
situated with a large dining-room and 
lounges: 100 bedrooms (hot and cold water 
and telephones); private suites wilh bath- 
room. Garage and sample rooms. And 
last, but not least, the most beautiful and 
restful gardens to be found in Bulawayo. 

PALACE HOTEL 

PALACE HOTEL (BYO.) LTD.. ABERCORN STREET. BULAWAYO 
P.O. Box 520 Telegrams: "Palace" 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 

African Associated Mine* Lid ** 

African Distillers (Bhod.) lid j* 

African Tobaccos Ltd. 

Agencies (Africa) Led ij 

Atelier, Ltd. j, 

Ballantvne cm Co ..,. 

Baldwins (S.A.) Ltd JJ5 

Banet &. Harris Ltd. .. •■ ■• n"f*,'' a \ 7rv„.,.Vl 

Barclays Bank (Dominion, Colonial & Oversea). (Central 

Advertising Lid.) .. • •- , h ., 

Bennett & Webb Ltd. ■- 'J? 

Bechuanaland Exploration Co. Ltd. .. .. ■■ ■■ 

B.itish Onw Airways Corporation IP. N. Bar.etl Company 

(Ply.) Ltd.) •• • ;„ 

Borril fl). A. Blurobetg Ltd.l '-' 

Brando Bros. • • ' 7*>q 

British South Africa Company .. -• "** 

Bulawayo Vulcanitets Ltd. 'Adserviccs Lid.) .. "is 

Byiom Motors Ltd. .• •• -- Zy 

Cairns (Sbv> Lid. .» qg 

CcnirirAWc'aT'lways Corporation (Greenwood Advertising ^ 
Cetll»l*AfrlCan"Und"& Development Co. Ltd. (Rho.An B lo 

c,J^^^^^^^c ? . . :: :: « 

Clark. C. c* J. Ltd. (Cecil Noilcy Advertising Ltd.) . . ^j 

Coplhalls. _ -• ,--, .', ". 16} 

Cross. Rrie. Sports, Ltd. .., 

Cuthbcrt ei Co. Ltd.. v\. M. fa 

Dannakay Hotel 74 

Llcombc. Ltd., Geo JJ 

fESftB*Z£E£Ei. (Klio-Anglo Publicity Ltd.) " " OS 

Fisons (Rhodesia! Ltd |g 

Fulton ei. Evans Ltd ot 

Geddes Ltd J, 

Gmud Hotel ••_■•,,;.,;•, up 

Uotirock Ropes & Canvas (Atnca) Ltd '«- 

Gwelo ci District Publicity Association •>= 

H.ddon &. Sir Ltd |J 

i£ffii I ftnialcn .Agencies) Ltd.". (Adscrvicc, Ltd. , J 10 

Hodgson & Mvburgh Lid. • . ■ • ., Jj". 

Hurarttas. Ltd. (Rho-Aogfo Publicity Ltd.) ' 1» 

Holland. I. S. ... -• . " ii 

Howard & Co. (Africa) Ltd.. John ■..••..; " 

Hl.ntleveiPala.c. Lid. (Smee's Advertising Ltd.) .. 44 

Hylton ei Co. Ltd. . . ... 

Imperial Motors (19401 Ltd '"+ 

loelsoo Bros. Ltd. ,? 6 

Kahot Brothers Ltd. . . , . , 

Keanmac (Salisbury) Ltd ■■ 4 j () 

Keavs . . ■ • • - • • - ' ' " ' " _j$ 

Kelmak lEncineetsl .. •• .••,.,-. aa 

Kimptoni (Salisbury) Ltd. I Adserviccs Ltd.) • » 

Lenuon Ltd. .... '' *' i> 

I .eopard Rock Hotel || JbtJ 

Liberty Motors . . .- •• •• ■' " .... 

Lysagbi Ss Co. Ltd j\J 

Lytton Tobacco Co. Ltd '|J 

Mackay Si Son. Ltd.. I. .., 

Mashonaland Coachbuildcrs ]•£ 

Macmillan. Ma.s-vell & Co. Ltd. ... .. '£ 

Mufele, Thomas, trust ci Investment Co. Ltd =>- « 

Midlands Muling Co., Ltd ™ 

Modern Motets Ltd. . . ns 

Mos-enthals (Rhodesia! Ltd !,J; 

Natural Resource* Board 

Palace Hotel (Balawavo) Ltd. 

Pest Control (C.A.) Lid [[6 

PoneS ?S InduTrie. (Rhod.j ltd. (kho-.Wo Publicity 

Etd.) ■-,.:■, 50 

Premier Aeeociei Limited ;-,,.. if, 

Premier WoodvorkmB (Rhod.) Ltd. " an Rl 

Public Relations Department '"' 

Pu=cv & Diss Motors Ltd. . - • • " 

Quoin Hotel ....'■-- Qu 

Radio Ltd. ._. 1 . 1 

Raymond Tiles Ltd ,6 

R„odd;aL, L d. d (-Rho.An g lo Publicity Ltd., f 

Rhodesian College of Music Jj 

Rhodcsian Graphic .- .- •• -• ■■ ,,,, 

Khodesia Hardwares Timber Co. Ltd 11» 

Rhodesia Railways , 

ffiSS Toi^^tcie & P. P or. Co. CfW) Ltd. ,Ai i4g 

Rhodcsia^Valcaniring Works (Kho^Anplo Publicity Ltd.) . . 4« 

Sauer's Motors Ltd. .. .. -■ •. •;. . , , , 

Salisbury Board of Executors Ltd., (Adserviecs Ltd.) .. "» 

South African Breweries Ltd. 

South African Canvas Co., Ltd ^ 

South African Timber Co., Ltd. . .■.■__,..' . '.', 4* 

Spa Food Produeti ltd., (Greenwood AdyertisinB Ltd.) « 

Standard Bank of South Airier. Ltd * 

State Lotteries (Adscrvlces Ltd.) 

Stuiurt, Allele. Ltd ■ (0 

Teunon Bros. ■■-."'""' "8 

Times Furnishers Ltd. • ■ ■ | j rt 

Tobacco Auctions Ltd. ^ Q 

Turner & Son* ..-•-- j.^ 

U^^Ca'Tue Ma^eamshipCo. Ud. (G. -Street & Co." Ltd.) . 1 > 

Victoiia Palls Hotel .. .Vt 

Weakley ei Wrifiht 

Wilson & Smith .;„ 

W. & E. Silks Ltd 

South'p.un Rhodesia 1860-1950 



Pagf 2 




SOUTHERN RHODESIA 

18904950 



/ 



THE EDITOR AND PUBLISHERS OF 
"Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950" are 
indebted to His Excellency the Governor, Sir 
John Kennedy, for his inspiring foreword which, 
apart from its tribute to the past, encourages 
us to face with confidence the obstacles which 
are inevitably to be found in the path of a young 
country determined to go ahead, and this 
sentiment is reflected in the words of Mr. T. 
W. Rudland: "Even today, there is still work 
for Pioneers". 

This volume is an outline of Southern Rho- 
desia's advance during the sixty years of occupa- 
tion. All contributors possess an intimate 
knowledge of the subjects with which they deal, 
and have themselves played, and are still playing, 
leading roles in shaping the destiny of this 
Colony. 

Thanks are due to them for their interesting 
and authoritative contributions to this record, 
and also to the Central African Archives, the 
Public Relations Department, and the Clerk of 
the Legislative Assembly, for their ready co- 
operation. 



(Exccp* where otherwise ackno 
volume of the early days In Rhodes! 
courtesy of the Ccn'ral African Archh 



'Ic-rlacd. all photographs in this 
have been ohtained through the 
S.) 



CONTENTS 

Foreword by His Excellency the Governor, 
Major-General Sir John Kennedy, 
^ K.C.V.O., K.B.E., C.B., M.C. 
Cecil John Rhodes 
"Sixty Years Onward" 

by W. D. Qale 
"The Storv of the Chartered Company" 

fay Sir Dougal O. Malcolm, K.C.M.Q. 
"Journey into the Wilds" 

fay Jessie C. Lovemore 
"From Company's Colony to Near- 
Dominion" 

fay the R(. Hon. Sir Qodfrev Huggins, 
C.H., K.C.M.Q., F.R.C.S., M.P. 
"Even today . . . there is still Work for 
Pioneers" 

fay T. W. Rudland, O.B.E. 
"The Railways of Rhodesia, 1890-1950" 

fay Sir Arthur Qriflin. K.C.I.E., O.B.E. 
"The Rhodesian Mining Industry" 

fay FY P. Mermell, F.Q.S., M./.M.M. 
"From Unbridled Savagery" 

fay N. H. D. Spicer 
"Wings Over Rhodesia" ... 

fay Capt. A. Dandy Rawlins 
"Agriculture in Southern Rhodesia" 

by Capt. the Hon. F. E. Harris, C.M.Q., 
D.S.O. 
"From Merchant Adventurers to Com- 
merce and Industry' ' 

fay Cyril Allen, O.B.B., J.P. 
"Tobacco"... 

fay D. D. Brown 
"Rhodesian Sport since 1889" 

fay Lt.-Cot. J. de L. Thompson, E.D. 
Index to Advertisers 



DESIGNED AND COMPILED 15T THE RHODESIAN GRAPHIC 




Page 

5 
6 

7 

31 

45 



/-} 
83 
95 

113 
121 
129 

137 

145 

155 

2 



SALISBURY SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



PUBLISHED BY PICTORIAL PUBLICATIONS SYNDICATE 



wn|HH|nHB|H| 




Bulawayo 1949 



The Standard Bank grew up with Rhodesia : our ser- 
vices which are based on intimate knowledge of local 
banking needs include :- 



• Current, Savings and Deposit 
Accounts. 

• Letters oi Credit and Travellers' 
Cheques. 

• Purchase and Sale of Stocks 

and Shares. 

• Safe Deposit lor Securities. 



All forms of Bill Work. 
Import/Export Market Contacts. 

Trading and Industrial Informa- 
tion. 

Monthly Review of Business 
Conditions available on appli- 
cation. 



Assay Offices : 
JOHANNESBURG, BULAWAYO, SALISBURY, GATOOMA and GWELO. 
Over 440 Branches and Agencies in South and East Africa 



The 

STANDARD BANK 

OF SOUTH AFRICA, LTD. 



(REGISTERED AS A COMMERCIAL BANK) 



SAFETY 



COURTESY 



CONVENIENCE 



Page 4 



Souihekn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



FOREWORD 

BY 




HIS EXCELLENCY MAJOR-GENERAL SIR JOHN NOBLE KENNEDY, K.C.V.O., K.B.E., C.B., M.C. 
GOVERNOR AND COMMANDER-IX-CHIEF IK AND OVER THE COLONY OF S. RHODESIA. 




&%Si8^S>. N THIS S1XT1ETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDATION OF SOUTHERN 
Rhodesia as a civilised state, we stand on the threshold of a new era in the vigorous 
S;i life of our Colony. This is an occasion when we are called upon to exercise at 
I? once our memory for the past, and our imagination for the future. 
j£> As we look back upon the past, it is strange to reflect that, only sixty years 

J® ago, this was a land unknown to the world, save for the accounts of missionaries 
&&&&** anc l hunters, and inhabited by barbarians who preyed upon each other. There 
is no more thrilling story in the annals of adventure and romance, than that of the occupation 
and settlement of Rhodesia by Cecil Rhodes's pioneers. 

The high tradition established in the early days has been worthily upheld. The record of 
our country, in peace, has been one of steady progress, in the advancement of the native races, 
and in the development of the natural resources for the benefit of Europeans and Africans alike. 
In the two great wars of this century, Rhodesians have played a gallant part, second to none in 
the whole Empire, in proportion to our population. These are things of which we may well 
be proud. 

The future prospects of our Colony give us grounds for sober confidence. I, for one, believe 
that, in Rhodesia, we possess all the elements for continued progress. The spirit of our people 
is high. This Rhodesian spirit is, indeed, the Colony's greatest asset, greater even than our vast 
natural resources, still largely untapped. 

,- Like every other young country, Rhodesia has had its growing pains, and will doubtless 
suffer more in years to come. But I see no reason to doubt that difficulties will be surmounted, 
as they have been in the past, by the determination, and enterprise, and courage, which are 
characreristic of our people. 




/\r. 



'bUi^i^A 



GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 

SALISBURY, 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 




GOVEltNOn. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pacf S 




CECIL JOHN RHODES 
Founder of Rhodesia 

The Right Honourable Cecil John Rhodes was born at Bishop's Storrford Parsonage in Hertford- 
shire, on July 5th, 1853, and came to South Africa in 1870. In 1880 he founded the de Beer's 
Diamond Mining Company in Kimberley, and entered the Cape House of Assembly. In 1883 
he commenced the work towards the Northward expansion of British territory in Africa, and 
in 1887, his parcner, C. D. Rudd, gained a far-reaching concession over Mashonaland from King 
Lobengula. In 1889, Cecil Rhodes formed the British South Africa Company and was "ranted 
Royal Charter for the occupation and development of Mashonaland, and in 1890 his pioneers 
hoisted the Union Jack at Fort Salisbury, and the settlement of Mashonaland began. 

The Matabele war broke out in 1893, which ended in the subjugation of Matabeleland, and 
Mashonaland and Matabeleland were renamed Rhodesia in 1895. Cecil Rhodes died on March 
26th, 1902, and was buried in the Matopo Hills. 



Page 



Southern Rhodesia 1890 1950 




SIXTY YEARS IIWAII 



•i-^&^^-HE TRAIN CLACKS RHYTHMI- 
ify' sfi&'&'j^ cally over the gleaming track, past 
i:&fo'4$Z'?%. snug native villages with their 
?'TvlralS^ waving picannins, neat home- 
l*t3fiB^»^ steads nestling amid trees, and 
■^''y^^iiiii^/- beyond, acres of rich farm land or 



a smallworker's battery merrily 
hammering the gold-bearing ore. Telephone 
wires alongside the track hum with their messages, 
motorcars speed along all-weather roads, electric 
pylons straddle the Kills and valleys carrying 
power for farm and mine and industry. The train 
draws into a town, a town of modern 
shops and cinemas and hotels, of 

peaceful homes and gay gardens, o( _.- .. „..„ 

sports fields and swimming hath, ot |)1 \\ . ||. (lALr, 
activity and recreation. 

From the train on the daylight 
journey from Bulawayo to Salisbury 



the newcomer will see all this and more to 
convince him that he has come to a civilised 
land in which his person and property are safe, 
a land of law and order, a land throbbing with 
activity and energy and great promise. 

SIXTY YEARS AGO 



It has not always been like this. Sixty years 
ago this land was a wilderness of bush and 
tree, granite kopje and waving grass, inhabited 
by wild beasts and wilder men. Those herds 
of cattle were antelope and buffalo and elephant; 
that dog scratching himself in the 
sun was a lion waiting for his prey; 
that African constable on his bicycle 
was a Mashona tribesman with battle- 
axe and spear moving warily along a 
game track, probing every shadow 
for the menace of man or beast that 



Southern- Rhodesia 1390-1950 



Page 7 




W . D. GALE 
Like many other South Africans, he 

Vis on, the Story of Rhodesia , and 
his novel of the Pioneer Column, 
"The. Hundred Wagons . Mr Gale 
was for many years on the editorial 
staff of the Rhodesia HwB "^J""* 
appointed publicity officer to the U40 
(JiUlen Jubilee Celebrations Com- 
n.Utec in 1939, and later bM« 
Oticer for the duration ot the war. 
He has been assistant director ol the 
Public Relations Department since is 
inception, and fcr **£* *— 
years acting Director. 



men to tread Rhodesian soil. White men had 
ventu°d into Matabeleland forty years before- 
ventAiieuiu. Robert Moffat and his 

rr°jX Smith Moffat the Morgans, the 
Thomases and ethers who established little pases 
o ? civilisation in the forlorn, and complete y 
vain hope of converting the pagan Lobengula 
■and his people to the gentler ways of Christianity; 
eSorers and travellers like Baldwin .George 
\Vesfoeech and the artist-scientist Thomas 
Baines; hunters like Oubaas Hartley (who 
SSe of his club feet hunted elephant from 
horseback) and in later times Frederick Courtenay 
Si geologists like the German, Karl Mauch 
who first revealed Rhodesia's mineral riches; a 
medlev of traders like Petersen, Dawson Fair- 
hairn and Usher. Their influence on the life 
of the country in their day was negligible but 
e importance of the part they unwittingly 
Saved m the eventual colonisation of Rhodesia 
was Profound. They blazed the first faint trail 
of civ h at on in a savage wilderness and drew 
°he attention of others dreamers ; and doer to 
its possibilities. And the greatest ot these, 
others was Cecil John Rhodes, statesman and 
millionaire, both dreamer and Joer. 

These possibilities began to be more fully 
realised after the Pioneer Column had o it- 
snanned for the last time, on the site of bausbury 
on sSteXr 12, 1890, and its members, forming 
S££S 'into small syndicates, wWeredm£ 
the vague vastness of the veld to search tor 
tangible reward for their enterprise In those 
day! Prospectors sought only one thmg-goR 
Gold was the lodestone that drew men to risk 
Scomfort, privation and peril, and they found 
death more often than gold The other mineral 
riches beneath Rhodesia's soil-its coal, chrome. 



haunted his life. That smoke from a factory 
Sney w- ^^n'liamesT^tli: 

nmsmm 

-i „I Southern Rhodesia sixty years ago 
SLfiZSn S the smiling, peaceful, prosper- 
ous land that it is today. 



FXPLORERS, GOLD AND REBELLION 
Pagb 5 




13 September 1890. 

Lieu,. Tvndale-Biscoe, of the Pioneer Columti, hoisting 

the Union Jack at Fort Salisbury. 

Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




OFFICERS OF THE PIONEER COLUMN, 1890 

M^ " m S. Z^£S££ SSS-Bu-., Cap, M. Hean, Mai, F. Johnson; Cap, P. C. 
FronTrow: Lieu,. E. C. Tyndile-Biscoe ; Lieu.. R. G. Nicholson; Lieut. R. Beali Asst-Surgeon-LIeut. J. Brecc. 



asbestos, iron— were at first ignored for the 
greater lure of a yellow streak in the bottom of 
the pan. Sixty years ago Rhodesia's goldhelds 
were thought to be the equal of the great reefs 
of the Witwatersrand, at a time when the Rand 
miners had struck the sulphide zone and in 
their ignorance of a process to separate the gold 
from the sulphide were convinced that the Rand's 
halcyon davs were over. But the Rbodesian 
reefs belied their promise; they were badly 
faulted and rich strikes had a. habit of suddenly 
petering out. Disappointment and failure, allied 
to hardship and the threat of unpleasant death 
from disease, wild animals and savage men, 
tested the fortitude of the pioneer miners to 
the utmost. 

Not only the miners' fortitude was tested. 
Every man and woman of that pioneer com- 
munity faced a continual challenge, both 
communally and individually— the challenge of 
loneliness, insecurity, deprivation of the very 
essentials of civilised life. Individually they 
faced and met their challenge— the man in the 
veld helpless with malaria, the woman having 
her child without benefit of medical aid, the 
policeman alone with a mob of threatening 
natives — and out of their individual ordeals was 
born a spirit that is the very foundation of the 



Rhoclesian character. Communally they faced 
the threat of Matabele aggression with equal 
courage; a mere seven hundred men conquered 
LoberTgula's lesions and brought Matabeleland 
within the sphere of colonisation, and then, 
three years later, they met and defeated the 
greatest peril of all, when the Matabele, and later 




Administrator and Civil Staff, 1890 

Left to right: L. S. Jameson, C. F. Harrison. F. C. 
Selous, A. R. Colquhoun. 



South f. 



rn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Page 9 



the Mashona, rose in their thousands and 
menaced the life of every white man, woman and 
child between the Limpopo and Zambesi. 
Exploits from those troublous days — the Shan- 
gani Patrol of the Matabele War, the Mazoe 
Patrol of the Mashona Rebellion, Rhode's 
heroic indabas with the Matabele — all contributed 
to the most precious of all Rhodesian heritages, 
the Pioneer Spirit. It is something the modem 
pioneer would do well to acquire. 



rapid, until it was rudely halted by the outbreak 
of the Anglo-Roer War. The builders abandoned 
the pick and plough for the rifle and did not 
return to them for nearly three years, but a 
still more serious effect was the country's 
isolation. The railway line from the Cape 
which had triumphantly reached Bulawayo in 
1897 was useless as long as Kimberley and 
Mafcking were besieged, and even after these 
towns were relieved the line was subject to the 
hazards of guerilla warfare. The only means 
of entry for the essentials on which the country 
depended for its very existence was Beira, and 



A STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL 
TTHE FIRST EIGHT YEARS OF THE 
■*- Colony's life was a period of danger, 
anxiety, strain and insecurity that demanded 
the highest fortitude and faith in those striving to 
establish the foundations of civilised life. Those 
who later built upon those foundations also 
required fortitude and faith, but of a somewhat 
different order because the circumstances and 
demands were different. The courage required 
now was not so much physical and moral as 
spiritual and moral, the courage to lay railway 
tracks through the virgin bush, hew roads 
through the wilderness, build towns where 
native kraals had been before and establish farms 
in the favourite haunts of wild beasts. The faith 
of the early settlers was the faith of Cecil Rhodes 
who had dreamt about these things in the 1880's 
on the diamond fields at Kimberley, and by the 
conviction of his faith had persuaded his hard- 
headed partners in de Beers Consolidated and 
investors in Britain to become shareholders in 
the British South Africa Company to finance 
the sinews of civilisation in the land beyond the 
Limpopo. The magnetism of his faith inspited 
the first Rhodesians to hold on, to struggle and 
build and survive, and it also inspired the 
shareholders of the British South Africa Com- 
pany to deny themselves a dividend as long as 
the Company was responsible for the administra- 
tion of the territory. The colonisation of 
Southern Rhodesia as a unit of the British 
Empire was remarkable not only for the faith 
of its Founder or the fortitude of its builders 
but also for the fact that it did not cost the 
British taxpayer a single sixpence. There are 
few parts of the Empire that can say that. 

After 1897 the builders had need of the Pioneer 
Spirit not because of any internal challenge but to 
meet the stresses of the outside world. The 
two years following the final suppression of the 
Mashona Rebellion in 1897 were years of 
development in which progress promised to be 



':■: 




NYANDA and KAGUBI— INSTIGATORS OF THE 

MASHONA REBELLION 
Kagubi was a man of about forty years of age. About 
three months before the rebellion, he and other para- 
mount chiefs gave orders that the white settlers were to 
be murdered. Kagubi was the chief instigator, and to 
him all loot was handed. He gave orders to Nvanda to 
spread the rebellion, Nvanda being an old mondoro or 
goddess of twelve year's standing, and she in turn gave 
orders to the people around Ker in Mazoe to murder the 
settlers in that district, stating that her instructions had 
come from another god named Mlanga, who promised 
that as soon as the whites had been massacred in the 
outlying districts, he, by a miracle, would kill all those in 
town. Kagubi and Nyanda surrendered in October, 
1897, and the rebellion in Mashonaland may be considered 
to have been finally crushed from that date. 



cd 



Pace 10 



Southern Rhodesia 1890 1950 




MAZOE PATROL, 1897 
« of t Ke ..v.^ - t ook refuse a^^e - -*. - — *- sen, * ^ ft. 

To P = Berry, H. D. IWson, Pascoe (on roof) and George (native dxiwr). 



the capacity of that port to handle Rhodes a s 
imports was as inadequate in those days as it has 
proved to be in more recent times. Serious 
development was halted and it was not easily 
resumed. The war was followed by the : inevi able 
slump, and it was not until about 190? that the 
builders saw their way more clearly before 
them. Nine years later came the First World 
War. No one thought of conscription to keep 
the mines and farms producing, the administra- 
tion functioning, the country deve oping. Mines 
were allowed to flood, farms to he fallow and 
when the tragic years were over it took a long 
tune to bring them into production again, I he 
uneasy years that followed, the Great Depression 
of 1931-33, the international uncertainty or trie 
Hitler period, the outbreak of the Second World 
War are all too recent to need recounting, but 
they affected the Colony adversely in reducing 
the flow of capital to prime the pump of develop- 
ment. The sixty years of Southern Rhodesia s lite 
have not been easy or tranquil years. 

Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




The staff of a Bulavvayo engineering firm, at the time of 
the rebellion. 

CmrOuui ly H. G. /.«els. E,4. 



Pace 11 




- 1 1 am 



Troop, leaving Salisbury for the Boer War. 



/ 



IN SPITE OF SETBACKS 

A.TET IN SPITE OF ALL THESE SETBACKS, 
X occurring at almost regular intervals through- 
out these sixtv years, the Colony s progress 
has been steady, and it has been sound, ^o 
other self-governing unit of the Empire can 
claim the same rate of development tat the first 
s £ty years of its life, but then no other self- 
governing unit has enjoyed the same mechanical 
advantages. The birth of Rhodesia coincided 
with the" birth of the Mechanical Age. Although 
he Colony was pioneered and colonised at the 
pace of the ox, the Age of the Ox-wagon was 
Latino its end. Railways were becoming a 
commonplace, and 12 years after the Pioneer 
Column had outspanned at Salisbury the 
Rhodesian sun shone on ra.ls from Bulawayo 




Stage coach leaving Salisbury's first post 



office. 



to Umtali. The day of the stage catthwM 
over, too; Zecderbergs elaborate «0mm 
could not compete with the raflway, andstdl 
less with the motorcar which appeared m all i J 
noisy and noisome, glory before the tirst 
World War. (Early settlers still recall with a 
chuckle the arrival of the first motorcycle, 
owned hv an adventurous medical man, Dr 
Aoplevard, whom they remember with respect 
2£f alection. He tried it for *<:*<* "™™ 
the racecourse, and having got it started was 
unable to stop it. He went round and round 
the racecourse until the petrol gave out, witn 
Mrs. Applevard periodically throwing food to 
him as he passed.) The telegraph was an 
accepted commonplace of civilisation so that 
the pioneers of Rhodesia cou d communicate 
with the outside world in a 
matter of minutes, whereas the 
Pioneers of South Africa, 
Canada, Australia and New 
Zealand had to wait months for 
the answers from the Mother 
Country. The advent of wire- 
less speeded up communications 
still further, and the develop- 
ment of broadcasting alter the 
First World War brought the 
Rhodesian into intimate and 
instantaneous contact with the 
outside world. 

The introduction ot these 
mechanical marvels has meant 
that Rhodesia did not develop 
in isolation. From the beginning 
it has been conscious ot the 



Southern Rhoiiesia 



1 8MO-I950 



Pace 12 




Fording a Rhodesian rivtr in the earlv days. 



outside world and has kept pace with modern 
trends both material and mental. The spur 
of progress has been consistently in its flanks 
and it could do nothing else but respond. 
But that fact does not dim the achievement 
of, or diminish our debt to, all the Rho- 
desians, high and humble, who have con- 
tributed to the development of Rhodesia in 
these last sixty years. The mechanical aids to 
progress were not in themselves sufficient, it 
took enterprise, initiative and courage to make 
the fullest use of them. And above all, it took 
faith. 



FROM ROYAL CHARTER 
SELF-GOVERNMENT 

TIN 1922, THAT FAITH \VAS 
L exemplified, when on Octo- 
ber 22nd the 33,000 people who 
composed the European popu- 
lation were faced with the task 
of deciding the whole constitu- 
tional future of their country. 
For the past .32 years they had 
been governed by the British 
South Africa Company, generally 
known as the "Chartered Com- 
pany" — and it all depended on 
the tone of voice whether the 
term "Chartered" was one of 
respect or opprobrium. But let 
this be said. Of all the chartered 
companies sanctioned by the 



TO 



British Government, none completed its labours 
and yielded up its commission with so high a 
prestige, so exemplary a record of service, so 
commendable an achievement to its credit as the 
British South Africa Company. Not only did it 
save the British taxpayer the cost of adding 
Rhodesia to the crown of Fmpire, but it saw the 
infant Colony first through its birth pangs, then 
through its teething troubles and finally through 
the aches and pains of adolescence with far more 
concern for the interests of the resident popu- 
lation than for its shareholders. Its Admini- 
strators (like Sir William Milton and Sir Drum- 
mond Chaplin) were men of the highest integrity, 
its officials of the highest calibre. But they could 
not escape the charge that no matter how disin- 
terestedly it carried out its administrative re- 
sponsibilities, the Chartered Company was a 




First huts, Umlali, 1897. 

This was the first residence and office of the Magistrate 

and Civil Commissioner, C,i M.iii: Scott-Turner. 



SoniiBN Rhodesia 1890-1050 



Pace 13 



{ 



— - 







xorri- , 

■ ' 



.?-i^;;-.vy/ •• 



sj«< pre -is, -'fO* 




/5UiTlW^ FOTHERIKOM. S 

©titef-v- /tEF v crf^W] 

G W ECO 









I t£mMiMdm^ : :m^^¥ ^^x*^I t s% 



■SfP 



. Cvv.£ 

I; . - &tSti 



•r--. 




„ THE,- 

BUTCHER 



FURSE Bros, 



IT70! 



GOOD STA.SJ. .'.'V5 



3 aiw,-c>^ VTL •fy&W&i 



increased and the clamour for a larger measure 

was a testimonial to the quality of the settler,, 
heir c "reliance, their independence heir 
mpatience with an administration which took 
borders from a board of directors ,n London 
The voice of the people had stridently demoded 
a larger sav in their own affairs ever Since the 
Pioneer Column, and bit by bit the reins had 
been slackened through the years In 1VK» 
the Legislative Assembly had consisted of Uve 
official members (heads ol the Company s 
departments) to four aominated members, e 
•settlers' representatives. Bur that year trie 
numbers on each side were -creased to seven 
giving the settlers an equal vo.ee. In 190/ the 
number of official members was reduced to 
five "ving the settlers a majority of two, and 
n 9 H the composition of the Councd was 

no ,reater than the Company's desire to give 

them Xr head so that, relieved of its adrrunistra- 

uTresponsiHlities, it could concentrate on the 

business of earning well-earned dtvidends for 

(continued on page to) 



The first newspaper, Gwclo, 1894. 

"The Norths Optimist", edited by £*£&£t££. 
four month,, and later became known as the Queio 1 nnes. 



commercial concern, and in the opinion , of the 
"settlers", as the non-official population was 
called, it must have an eye to the jnttm chance 
Yet, when the first 25-year period of the Charter 
exp red in 1914, the settlers' representatives n 
the Legislative Council were wise enough to 
recognise that without the guidance, and above 
all the financial strength of the ■Chartered 
Companv behind it the Colony could not exist, 
and they agreed that the charter should be 
extended for another ten years. 

During these ten years the population grew 
the commence of the settlers in themselves 



Paoi-. H 




Col I W. Colenbrander, Captain Fit»tubbs and 
Sail" L V a,l of the Is. KitcB^B^^^ 



Southern 



Rhodesia 1890-1950 



World's View, Matopos, Burial Place of Cecil John Rhodes. 




THE BURIAL— 1902 



/ 



When that great Kings return to clay, 

Or Emperors in their pride, 
Grief of a day shall fill a day, 

Because its creature died. 
But we — we reckon not with those 

Whom the mere Fates ordain, 
This power that wrought on us and goes 

Back to the Power again. 

Dreamer devout, by vision led 
Beyond our guess or reach, 

The travail of his spirit bred 
Cities in place of speech. 

So huge the all-mastering thought that drove- 
So brief the term allowed — 

Nations, not words, he linked to prove 
His faith before the crowd. 

It is his will that he look forth 

Across the world he won — 
The granite of the ancient North — 

Great spaces washed with sun. 
There shall he patient take his scat 

(As when the Death he dared), 
And there await a people's feet 

In the paths that he prepared. 

There, till the vision he foresaw 

Splendid and whole arise, 
And unimagined Empires draw 

To council 'neath his skies, 
The immense and brooding Spirit still 

Shall quicken and control. 
Living he was the land, and dead, 

His soul shall be her soul! — Rudyard Kipling. 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



PAlit 15 




■»*o^-o-^- 2sraW jnttaaKWff** , zl , ^:r" 



its shareholders. The question at issue in 1922 
was no longer whether the Company s charter 
should be continued or terminated, it was what 
was Rhodesia going to do— become a fifth 
province of the Union or embark on the risky 
venture of self-government? The elections in 
1970 g ave a pointer to the referendum held 
two vears later, for the representatives returned 
to the Legislative Counci were with one 
exception, elected on a platform of self-govern- 
ment. As the date of the Charter s termination 
drew near the controversy raged at boiling 
point throughout the land, and even General 
Smuts joined in. He was anxious that Rhodesia 
should join the Union for the value of the 
British vote which the Colony represented, and 
he lumped at an invitation to open the 19Zi 
Salisbury Agricultural Show. In his speeches 
at various centres he urged the advantages of 
■ oining the Union— and, economically at any 
rate, these arguments were weighty. I he con- 
ditions which he offered both the people and 
the Chattered Company to woo their support 
were extremely generous. But all to no avail. Ihe 
Rhodesians were determined to plough their own 
furrow, and when they went to the polls on 
October 7th, 1922, they decided in favour Of 
self-government by 8,774 votes to 5,989. 

On September 12, 1923, thirty-three years after 
Lieut. Tyndale Biscoe of the Pioneer Column 
had hoisted the Union Jack on the virgin site 
of" Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia was formally 
annexed as a Colony of the British Empire and 
was granted Responsible Government as from 

Pace 16 



October 1st of that year. The Chartered Com- 
pany thankfully laid down its administrative 
Task. It had borne a heavy financial burden 
It had paid the cost of the Matabele \Varand 
the still heavier cost of the Matabele and Mashona 
Rebellions; it had been made responsible tor 
the entire cost of administration, and deficits 
between revenue and expenditure had had to 
be met out of its commercial revenue. From 
1897 to 1905 the annual deficit was between 
£?00 000 and £500,000, and it was not until 
1908' that revenue and expenditure balanced 
for the first time. That was why the Company 
was unable to pay its long-suffering shareholders 
a dividend. On termination of its Charter the 
Company was paid £3,750,000 as compensation 
for its losses in administering the Colony (it had 
asked tor a great deal more and the amount 
was settled by a Royal Commission) and in 
1924 it was able to give its shareholders the 
small return on their investment of 6d._per 
share dividend and a return of capital of 5/- a 
share. 

• • • 

RHODES'S VISION 

THE STRATEGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 
1 Rhodes's achievement in first of all securing 
from Lobengula the right to exploit the minerals 
of Mashonaland, then adding Mamcaland and 
Matabeleland to form Southern Rhodesia and 
finally colonising the territory by means or his , 
Chartered Company must not be overlooked. 
When he was studying the map of Africa in his 

Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




"Seeing the boys off". Departure of the 2nd Rhodesia Regiment from Salisbury. September. 1917. 



Kimberley office in the 1880's, the Germans 
were becoming firmly entrenched on the coastal 
belt of South-West Africa and were reaching 
north-eastwards into the interior (the Caprivi 
Strip stretches from the top of South-West 
Africa almost to the Victoria Falls, which luckily 
was as far as they got) ; the Portuguese had been 
established on the east coast for a couple of 
hundred years, and although they had not 
colonised the interior they considered Manica- 
land at least as within their sphere of influence; 
the Boers of the Transvaal Republic were casting 
envious eyes on the country beyond the Limpopo, 
and indeed might have occupied it but for a 
belt of tsetse fly along the river which threatened 
their oxen and the knowledge that the Matabele 
would bitterly oppose their entry. Had Rhodes 
not sent his Pioneer Column north in 1890 
Rhodesia would have become either German or 
Portuguese or Boer territory, or perhaps an 
uneasy combination of all three. Had Rhodesia 
not been British territory in 1900, cutting off 
/"the Boer retreat northwards, the Boer Wat- 
would probably have been much more protracted 
than it was. Had the territory been owned by 
Germany at the time of the First World War 
rhe Union of South Africa, and the whole 
system of British communications in Africa and 
the sea route round the Cape would have been 
directly threatened (as it was, the German 
forces ' from East Africa were stopped by the 
Rhodesians at Abercorn in Northern Rhodesia). 
Had the Portuguese colonised the interior the 
whole of Central Africa, probably, would have 



been neutral in both World Wars and Brirish 
strategy would have been severely compromised. 
The vision of Rhodes, the courage of the 
Pioneers, the tenacity and faith of the Rhodesian 
people, the sacrifices of the Chartered Com- 
pany's shareholders, all have combined to 
exercise an incalculable influence on the pre- 
servation and development of the British 
Empire in Africa. 



THE FIRST GOVERNMENT 

THE COLONY WAS FORTUNATE IN 
its first Premier. Sir Charles Patrick 
Coghlan, a Kimberley lawyer who had settled 
in Bulawayo in the early years, had been the 
leader of the Responsible Government forces. 
He was a doughty fighter, with a statesmanlike 
approach to the Colony's problems, and at the 
first general election in 1924 he led his party, 
the Rhodesia Party, to overwhelming victory. 
He was faced with no light task, but at least he 
was heartened by the knowledge that the majority 
of those who had opposed him on the Respons- 
ible Government issue were now solidly behind 
him, for everyone, whether he believed in the 
Colony's ability to govern itself or not, now 
put his shoulder to the wheel. Coghlan had 
plenty of talent to choose from for his first 
Cabinet, with such staunch Rhodesians as H. 
U. Moffat, grandson of the famous missionary, 
Dr. Robert. Moffat, who was to succeed him 
as Premier, W. M. Leggate, an Edinburgh 



Southern Rhodesia 18°0-1950 



Page 17 




1921. Prince and Princess Arlhur uf Connaught during their visit to Umtali. 

CoiwipnitJ 6y L. G- Si'weH. Eiq. 



gold medallist in economics, who is best remem- 
bered as Colonial Secretary (the old title of the 
Minister of Internal Affairs), R. A. Fletcher, 
whose son, P. B. Fletcher, has followed in his 
footsteps as Minister of Agriculture, J. W. 
Downie, who at various times held the portfolios 
of Agriculture and Mines and later was High 
Commissioner in London. The Colony's first 
High Commissioner was Sir Francis Newton, 
an outstanding character, who had been Treasurer 
in the B.S.A. Company's administration, and the 
first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly was the 
Hon. Lionel Cripps who had helped hack the 
road through the lowveld bush with the Pioneer 
Column. All these, and others like P. D. L. 
(Sir Percy) Fynn who held the Treasury portfolio 
for many years, were all great Rhodesiuns who 
embarked on their task of guiding the infant 
Colony's footsteps and laying the foundations 
for its future growth with a loyalty and devotion 
that transcended all thought of self. The 
Colony was lucky in its first Responsible 
Government leaders, just as it has been luckv in 
the quality of the men who have since taken 
over their tasks. 
y The foresight of the earlier Rhodesians in 
having the land issue settled before the termina- 
tion of the Company's charter enabled the 
Colony to embark on the perilous sea of self- 
government with a certain amount of confidence. 
The land story goes back to pioneer days, when 
a German financier named Lippert obtained a 
concession from Lobengula giving him the land 
rights in Mashonaland and Matabeleland for 
100 years. The Chartered Company was justified 
in arguing that the Rudd Concession of 1888 
gave it the right to the land as well as to the 



minerals of Mashonaland, but Rhodes, who 
did not believe in fighting if he could gain his 
ends by other means, bought the land rights 
from Lippert in 1891. During subsequent years 
the Company alienated land in the belief that 
they owned it by both grant and purchase. They 
received a shock in 1914 when the unofficial 
members of the Legislative Council passed a 
resolution contesting the "claim of the Company 
to be the private owners of all the unalienated 
land in Southern Rhodesia", and claiming the 
land on behalf of the people. The resolution 
resulted in protracted litigation and finally 
reached the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council in 1917. The Council's judgment, 
delivered in July, 1918, found that the Company, 
as a subject of the Crown, had acted on the 
Crown's behalf in adding Mashonaland and 
Matabeleland ro the British Empire, and that 
the land therefore belonged to neither the 
Company nor the settlers but to the British 
Government. When Responsible Government 
was granted the land passed into the ownership 
of the Southern Rhodesia Government. 

So much for the land. But what of the 
minerals? The Chartered Company was recog- 
nised as the owner of the mineral rights and was 
therefore entitled to charge royalties on the 
result of mining operations. One of the first 
actions of the first Government was to try to 
purchase these rights, but the Chartered Com- 
pany was not willing to sell. The ownership 
of the mineral rights was a bone of contention 
in Rhodcsian politics for years, until in 1933 
the Company, under the chairmanship of Sir 
Henry Rirchenough, yielded to the wishes of 
the people and agreed to sell for £2,000,000. 



Page 18 



Southern Rhodesia 1890^ 1950 




Crown Colony whose affairs are directed from 
6,000 miles away, and a comparison between 
their state and ours. 

Rhodesia's confidence has grown with the 
years. At first our footsteps on the road of 
progress were hesitant, then gradually they 
steadied until today the tread is firm and sure. 
Why are we so much more confident today than 
we were, say, twenty, even ten, years ago? 
Twenty years ago we stood on the brink of the 
Great Depression. Trade was beginning to 
slacken, we saw approaching the spectre of 
widespread unemployment, which was already 
afflicting more powerful and better developed 
countries; money was steadily getting tighter. 
This was the worst depression of all time. 
Would the Colony be able to stand it? We 
followed Britain off the gold standard, tightened 
our belts, helped the. poor fellows on the benches 
of Cecil Square as much as wc could (for the 
first time in our history we had white men 
handling picks and shovels on the roads, a 
salutary experience), and faced the storm. And 
we survived. We noc only survived, but we 
began to climb out of the depression earlier 
than most other countries. We felt we could 
face anything after that. 



IVZ5. The visit of the first Governor of Southern 
Rhode-sia, Sir John Chancellor, to Gatooma. 

Left to right: Captain Lowther, A.D.C.; Mr. T. J. 
Golding, Mayor ; Lr.-Col. Sir John Chancellor, 
K.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., R.E. i and the Magistrate of 
Gatooma. 

CtatrihunJ by L. Q. Well, E«7. 



CONFIDENT PROGRESS 

THE PROGRESS MADE BY SOUTHERN 
Rhodesia in the last twenty-eight years of 
self-government has fullv justified the confidence 
of the 8,774 Rhodesians who in 1922 decided 
that the country should, and could, stand on 
its own feet. When the first Cabinet Ministers 
were sworn in the total population was about 
900,000, of whom some 36,000 were Europeans: 
the public revenue was only £1,326,000; road 
communications were poor and air services 
were non-existent; social services such as schools 
and hospitals were well behind the country's 
needs. Today, 28 years later, the total population 
is nearing the 2,000,000 mark, of whom more 
than 120,000 are Europeans, the national revenue 
is yver £16,500,000, all-weather roads radiate 
over the length and breadth of the Colony, 
air services communicate swiftly with places 
fat beyond our borders, social services, while 
by no means fully developed, are at any rate 
far more comprehensive than anyone could have 
expected even 15 years ago, much less 28. 
Materially, Southern Rhodesia's progress under 
Responsible Government has been a remarkable 
achievement for so small a European com- 
munity. For confirmation of the advantages of 
autonomy all that is necessary is a visit to a 



NOTABLE WAR EFFORT 

THEN CAME THE SECOND WORLD 
War. Since, in the words of the Prime 
Minister, "England's wars are our wars", 
Rhodesia was in it up to the neck from 11 a.m. 
on Sept. 3, 1939. Like the rest of the Empire 
we embarked on it unprepared and unequipped, 
but determined to give of our best. That best 
exceeded our wildest dreams. Rhodesian soldiers 
were the first in the Empire to move, Rhodesian 
airmen were the first to fly to battle stations, 
Rhodesians fought in every Service and on 
practically every front. Militarily, economically, 
industrially, Rhodesia's contribution, in pro- 
portion to her total European population which 
in 1939 numbered only 63,000, was a notable 
one. But her greatest contribution of all was 
the part she played in the Empire Air Training 
Scheme. At the beginning we thought the utmost 
we could manage would be one full-si:ed training 
station, which would probably strain the Colony's 
resources to the utmost. Within a few months 
we had accepted liability for three, though we 
doubted our ability to build the stations and 
feed the troops. But we did it (in the Gwelo 
area a stretch of bare veld was transformed into 
a full air training station, with barrack rooms, 
hangars, administration offices, etc., and a hot 
meal on the table, in the space of eleven weeks) 
and as the number of stations increased to eleven 
for fighter, bomber and navigator training, wc 
found that our resources were far more elastic 
than we had imagined. Our confidence in 
ourselves grew. Instead of thinking in terms of 
thousands of pounds, as we did before the 



Southern Rhodisia 1890-1950 



Pace 19 




A nev/ MorrU Six 

in front ol the 

Town House, Salisbury, 

Southern Rhodesic. 



DJSTRI3UTORS : 



PUZEY & DISS MOTORS, LTD. 

SHOWROOM : KENWOOD'S SEHVICE STATION. SECOND ST.. 
SALISBURY. SOUTHERN RHODESIA. 



Pace 20 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




1939-1945 War. His Majcscv King George VI in conversation with Rhodesian troops in Italy. 



War. we now thought in terms of millions. Our 
horhons widened, our outlook broadened, our 
faith deepened. The Rhodesians of 1 945 were 
vastly different to the Rhodesians of 1939 in a 
subtle psychological way, and for that difference 
the Air Training Scheme was to a large extent 
responsible. 

When, after the war, the Roads Department 
proposed that £10,000,000 should be spent in a 
ten-year programme of road improvement and 
development, no one even blinked; when the 
Irrigation Dept. proposed to spend another ten 
millions on a long-term scheme of irrigation and 
water conservation works, the general comment 
was that far more would probably be needed; 
when the Government announced that it intended 
to raise a loan of thitty millions to purchase the 
Rhodesia Railways, the newspapers waited in 
vain for letters of protest. The realisation that 
Southern Rhodesia's resources, mineral and 
agricultural, had scarcely been tapped, much 
less exploited, and that the real development of 
the country lay ahead and not behind coincided 
-with that widened outlook and that deepened 
faith without which no real development can 
be possible. 



THE AFRICAN 

BUT IT IS PROBABLY IN THE FIELD OF 
human relationships that the most notable 
progress has been discernible in, say, the last 
twenty years, the relationship between the 



European inhabitants with their higher standard 
of civilisation, their broader culture, their vastly 
different background, and the native inhabitants 
who only sixty years ago were savages living in 
savagery. The arrival of the Pioneer Column 
in 1890 rescued the hapless Mashonas from 
extermination at the hands of the rapacious 
.Vlatabele and, to a lesser extent, the Shangaans 
of Portuguese East Africa. One of the primary 
causes of the Matabclc War of 1893 was the 
fact that the handful of settlers, scattered over 
the face of Mashonaland, could not effectively 
protect the Mashonas from continued raids 




The Prime Minister, the Right Hon. Sir Godfrey Huggins 
visiting Rhodesian troops in the Middle East in 1943. 



Solthcrn Rhodesia 1890-1950 



Pace 21 



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Page 22 



Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




1947— The King's Year. 

His Majesty King George VI, the first reigning monarch 

to visit Southern Rhodesia, at the grave of Cecil John 

Rhodes in the Matopos. With the King is the Minister 

in attendance, the Hon. P. B. Fletcher. 



by the Matabele, and that there could be no 
real economic development as Ion-; as the. sense 
of insecurity persisted. The conquest of 
Lobengula's 20,000 warriors by 700 Pioneers 
under the intrepid leadership of Dr. Jim (Sir 
Leander Starr Jameson) settled that issue, for 
the next three years at any rate. The outbreak 
of the Matabele Rebellion in March, 1896, 
was totally unexpected but at least it was under- 
standable. The Matabele indunas resented 
/ their loss of authority, the Matabele people 
objected to the truculent attitude of the native 
police, most of them.Mata.bele (there is no harsher 
tyrant than a member of a subject race against 
his own kind, unless adequately disciplined), 
they hated the idea of working for the white 
man, although there was no compulsion on them 
to do so. In 1895 the dread disease of rinderpest 
swept through the land and killed their cattle 
by the thousand (a calamity indeed, for cattle 



was their wealth), then a series of locust visita- 
tions destroyed their crops. Here was proof 
enough that the gods disapproved of the presence 
of the white man. Then Dr. Jameson made the 
mistake of his career, and when almost the 
entire Police Force was captured at Doornkop 
and almost the entire stock of arms in the 
country fell into Boer hands, the Matabele 
leaders realised that never again would they have 
such an opportunity. An eclipse of the moon 
in March, 1896, gave them their date, and they 
struck, savagely, mercilessly, without pity for 
man, woman or child. They were subdued 
after four months of bitter fighting, thanks to 
the dauntless courage of the Pioneer settlers 
and to the heroism of Rhodes himself who ven- 
tured into the fastnesses of the Matopos to 
talk with them and persuade them to put away 
their assegais. 

The Mashona Rebellion which broke out 
with the murder of the ^^orton family near 
Salisbury in June, 1896, was far more difficult 
to understand. The Mashonas had every reason 
to be grateful for the presence of the white man, 
and no one dreamt of the possibility of treachery. 
A large number of settlers in lonely places paid 




Their Royal Highnesses the Princess Elirabeth and the 
Princess Margaret, preceded by Ladv Kennedy*, arriving 
tor the opening of the second session of Southern 
Rhodesia's Sixth Parliament at Salisbury on April 7, 1947 



Southf.rv Rhodfsia 1 3Q0-1 950 



f'AGt 23 



THE RHODESIAN 



®iaphh 




P. EFLECTS RHODESIA TO THE WORLD 

"The Rhodesian Graphic." Southern Rhodesia's quarterly journal, 

circulates chlelly in this Colony, but it may be o! interest to see 

at a glance how far atteld this publication travels, end to realise 

how Rhodesian developments and allrcclions are reflected, through 

its pages, to numerous and lar away countries where previously 

the name Rhodesia meant little more than a spot on the nap. 

It is nil pn-t of our expansion that th« world should know the iremendous strides 

which have been taken curing thos& post-war years, and, apart from being cf inte-est 

to the overseas business nan, ihe tourist realises that rtnode&ia holds attractions, 

second to none in ihe world, which are well worth seeing for oneselt. 



THE PU3LISHERS 



Subscriptions and Advertising" Rates :rom 
P.O. Box 1566 - SALISBURY 



SOUTHERN RHODESIA 



For €iiftH 
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Page 2) 



Southern Rhodesia IS:0-1950 




Southern Rhodesia. 



with their lives for the general misunderstanding 
of Mashona psychology, which reasoned that 
since the Matabele must be stronger than the 
white man (because the Matabele punished 
with the assegai whereas the white man sent them 
to gaol, where they were fed and clothed and 
comfortably housed; therefore the white man 
sought to disguise his essential weakness by 
appeasement) they would drive the Whites out 
of the country. And when that happened the 
Matabele would say to the Mashonas, "You 
did not help us to drive out the white men, 
therefore you must die like the dogs you are", 
and would proceed to exact retribution according 
to custom. And so, reasoned the savage 
Mashona mind, we will rise against the white 
men, too, and be acclaimed by the Matabele as 
allies. Terror and sudden death stalked the 
land for months, each petty Mashona chieftain 
had to be conquered separately and it was not 
until late in 1897 that peace was finally restored. 

For vears afterwards the Europeans were 
,/ understandably mistrustful of the native, and 
this mistrust was fanned by one or two minor 
risings, or threatened risings, in various districts 
in the early years of the present century. The 
D.S.A. Company administration adopted the 
policy of "Leave the native alone. Do nothing 
that is at all likely to upset him," a policy which 
led them, for instance, to suppress all information 
about the discovery of Lobengula's burial place 
in 1914, so that the true story of Lobengula's 
death and burial in the wilds of the Wankie 

Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 



district at the end of the Matabele War was not 
generally known until 1946. But through the vears 
the suspicion and mistrust have gradually died 
down, to be replaced by a sense of confidence 
and a realisation that both sections comprise 
one population and that each is essential to the 
other in the development of the country they 
both call "Home". The advancement of the 
native (or "the African", as enlightened opinion 
prefers to call him) is an accepted part of 
Government policy, designed not only to improve 
his efficiency as an economic unit but also to 
raise him in the human scale, to develop his 
potentialities as a human being. Instead of 
leaving him alone, as the R.S.A. Company 
deemed it wise to do. the Government of today- 
is educating him (close on £600,000 was provided 
for Native Education in the 1949/50 financial 
year), teaching him to become a more efficient 
farmer, improving his village life, providing him 
with far-flung medical services, helping him in 
a hundred different ways to adapt himself to 
the demands of modern civilsacion. And in 
doing all this the Government has the backing 
of the majority public opinion in the Colony. 



ATTAINING MATURITY 

rpHAT IS A TRIBUTE TO THE OVERALL 

-L quality of Southern Rhodesia's European 

population— the fact that in spite of the horrors 

of the Matabele and Mashona Rebellions a 



Pace 25 







FURNITURE . . . 

from the House with a reputation of over 
Fifty Years of Honest Value. Each piece 
of furniture sold by us must satisfy two 
groups of people - our customers and 
ourselves. Every piece must be worthy 
of the "Ellenbogen" tradition. By no 
means a spectacular policy, but it does 
assure you that all "Ellenbogen" furni- 
ture is honest furniture, and we gladly 
accept the responsibility. 



ELLENBOGEN & CO. 



THE PHEMIER KOUSE FURNISHERS OF RHODESIA 
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Page 26 



BYROM MOTORS 

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Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950 




1949— AND LOOKING AHEAD. 

THE DELEGATES TO THE VICTORIA FALLS CONFERENCE ON FEDERATION OF 
SOUTHERN RHODESIA, NORTHERN RHODESIA AND NYASALAND. 
Front row, left to right: Mr. G. Beckett (N. Rhodesia); The Hon. E. C. F. Whitehead, O.B.E. (S. Rhodesia); The Ri. 
Hon. Sir Godfrey Huggins. C.H., K.C.M.G. (S. Rhodesia); Sir Miles Thomas, D.F.C. (Chairman of the Conference); 
The Hon. R. Welensky, C.M.G.. M.L.C. (N. Rhodesia); Mr. M. P. Barroiv, M.L.C. (Nyasaland); Mr. G. G. S. J. Hadlow, 
M.L.C. (Nyasaland). 

Standing, left to right: Mr. F. J. Morris (N. Rhodesia); Mr. A. A. Davis (N. Rhodesia); Mr. J. Marshall (Nyasaland); 
Mr. Stanley Cooke (S. Rhodesia); Captain the Hon. F. E. Harris, C.M.G., D.S.O. (S. Rhodesia). 



little over 50 years ago (recent enough to be 
remembered by many Rhodesians of today) these 
conflicts have left no bitterness to poison 
relationships between White and Black, as 
similar conflicts have done in a neighbouring 
country. The Past is past, only the Present 
and still more the Future count. Rhodesians 
can claim with some justice that they have 
worthily discharged the responsibilities they 
undertook when they chose Responsible Govern- 
ment, and that the tolerance and understanding 
they have shown in the development of har- 
monious relations between Black and White 
qualify them for still greater responsibilities. 
No one will deny that there are imperfections in 
our jf ace relationships, but under the guidance 
of Sir Godfrey Huggins, who has directed the 
Colony's destinies for the past 16 years and 
is the chief architect of our Native Policy, 
those imperfections are being gradually removed. 
Nothing is to be gained by trying to develop 
the African in a hurry; far better that his 
development should be slow but sound than that 
it should be rapid and ephemeral. 



In the past four years, since 1946 when the 
flow of immigration started in earnest, Southern 
Rhodesia has developed more rapidly and in a 
larger number of directions than ever before 
in her brief history. The development in many 
ways has been startling, and revolutionary, and 
the Colony has been suifering from a severe 
attack of growing pains. But growing pains are 
the physical manifestation of a healthy adolesc- 
ence leading to virile manhood. Southern 
Rhodesia is approaching that manhood. She is 
taking her place in the councils of the world, 
speaking up with the voice of independence, 
gaining the experience that will eventually 
entitle her to stand solidly on her own feet. 
In the last few years she has made considerable 
progress towards the attainment of her consti- 
tutional goal of Dominion Status, fit to rank as 
equal with the nations of the British Common- 
wealth. 

That is not a bad record after only sixty years — 
less than the lifetime of the average man, a very 
brief span in the life of a country. What will 
the next sixty years produce? No one can say, 
but at least we have the satisfaction of knowing 
that the foundations for our future progress 
have been well and truly laid. 



Southern Rhodesia IS90-1950 



Page 27